N-acetylcysteine administration confers lung protection in different phases of lung ischaemia-reperfusion injury.Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2014 Dec; 19(6):894-9.IC
To verify the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) administered before and after ischaemia in an animal model of lung ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury.
Twenty-four Wistar rats were subjected to an experimental model of selective left pulmonary hilar clamping for 45 min followed by 2 h of reperfusion. The animals were divided into four groups: control group (SHAM), ischaemia-reperfusion, N-acetylcysteine-preischaemia (NAC-Pre) and NAC-postischaemia (NAC-Post). We recorded the haemodynamic parameters, blood gas analysis and histology. We measured the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances concentration; the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitrotyrosine, cleaved caspase 3, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), NF-kappa-B inhibitor alpha (IκB-α), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β); myeloperoxidase activity (MPO).
No significant differences were observed in the haemodynamic parameters, blood gas analysis and SOD activity among the groups. Lipid peroxidation was significantly higher in the IR and NAC-Pre groups (P < 0.01). The expression of nitrotyrosine, cleaved caspase 3, NF-κB, IκB-α, TNF-α and IL-1β were significantly higher in the IR group when compared with the SHAM and NAC groups (P < 0.01). The NAC-Pre group showed a significantly higher expression of these proteins when compared with the SHAM and NAC-Post groups (P < 0.05). After reperfusion, the expression of iNOS increased almost uniformly in all groups when compared with the SHAM group (P < 0.01). The histological analysis showed fewer inflammatory cells in the NAC groups.
The intravenous administration of NAC demonstrated protective properties against lung IR injury. The use of NAC immediately after reperfusion potentiates its protective effects.