Whole-fat dairy food intake is inversely associated with obesity prevalence: findings from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study.Nutr Res 2014; 34(11):936-43NR
Because research focusing on dairy food consumption and the risk for obesity is inconsistent and only a few studies have even examined specific dairy products, in regard to type of food and fat content, in relation to obesity risk, this cross-sectional study investigated whether dairy food consumption is associated with the prevalence of global and abdominal obesity. Data were analyzed from 1352 participants in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg survey. We hypothesized that higher total dairy food consumption would be independently associated with reduced prevalence of obesity. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to measure intakes of dairy foods. Odds for global obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2)) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference >102 cm for men and >88cm for women) were determined based on total dairy food intake as well as intakes of individual low- and whole-fat dairy products (milk, yogurt, and cheese). Total dairy food intake was inversely associated with the likelihood of global obesity (odds ratio [OR], 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30-0.89; P < .05) and abdominal obesity (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.32-0.83; P < .01). Participants in the highest tertile of whole-fat dairy intakes (milk, cheese, yogurt) had significantly lower odds for being obese (global obesity: OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.29-0.72; P < .01; abdominal obesity: OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.23-0.54; P < .001), compared with those in the lowest intake tertile, after full adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, dietary, and cardiovascular risk factor variables. Increasing consumption of dairy foods may have the potential to lower the prevalence of global and abdominal obesity.