Conversion of mild cognitive impairment to dementia among subjects with diabetes: a population-based study of incidence and risk factors with five years of follow-up.J Alzheimers Dis. 2015; 43(4):1441-9.JA
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with dementia. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a key determinant in this association. It is not clear whether T2DM increases the risk of conversion from MCI to dementia. We plan to explore the relationship between T2DM-MCI and dementia and identify its potential risk factors. A prospective community-based cohort study was conducted from March 2010 to March 2014, including 634 participants with T2DM-MCI, 261 T2DM participants who were cognitively intact, and 585 MCI participants without diabetes. All cohort members received detailed annual evaluations to detect dementia onset during the 5 years of follow-up. The three cohorts were compared to assess differences in dementia onset. Furthermore, Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify risk factors for dementia onset in the T2DM-MCI cohort. During follow-up, 152 and 49 subjects developed dementia in the MCI and cognitively-intact cohorts, amounting to an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.66 (95% CI 1.07-2.26). In a survival analysis of the cohorts, MCI accelerated the median progression to dementia by 2.74 years. In a multivariable analysis of the T2DM-MCI cohort, major risk factors for dementia were age >75 years and longer durations of diabetes, while significantly reduced risks of dementia were associated with oral hypoglycemic agents and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Insulin was not associated with significantly changed risk. T2DM-MCI may aggravate the clinical picture as a concomitant factor. To minimize progression to dementia, it may be worthwhile to target several modifiable diabetes-specific features, such as the duration of disease, glycemic control, and antidiabetic agents.