Exploring LPS-induced sepsis in rats and mice as a model to study potential protective effects of the nociceptin/orphanin FQ system.Peptides 2014; 61:56-60P
The nociceptin receptor (NOP) and its ligand nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) have been shown to exert a modulatory effect on immune cells during sepsis. We evaluated the suitability of an experimental lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis model for studying changes in the nociceptin system. C57BL/6 mice BALB/c mice and Wistar rats were inoculated with different doses of LPS with or without a nociceptin receptor antagonist (UFP-101 or SB-612111). In C57BL/6 mice LPS 0.85 mg/kg injection produced no septic response, whereas 1.2mg/kg produced a profound response within 5h. In BALB/c mice, LPS 4 mg/kg produced no response, whereas 7 mg/kg resulted in a profound response within 24h. In Wistar rats LPS 15 mg/kg caused no septic response in 6/10 animals, whereas 25mg/kg resulted in marked lethargy before 24h. Splenic interleukin-1β mRNA in BALB/c mice, and serum TNF-α concentrations in Wistar rats increased after LPS injection in a dose-dependent manner, but were undetectable in control animals, indicating that LPS had stimulated an inflammatory reaction. IL-1β and TNF-α concentrations in LPS-treated animals were unaffected by administration of a NOP antagonist. Similarly NOP antagonists had no effect on survival or expression of mRNA for NOP or ppN/OFQ (the N/OFQ precursor) in a variety of tissues. In these animal models, the dose-response curve for LPS was too steep to allow use in survival studies and no changes in the N/OFQ system occurred within 24h. We conclude that LPS-inoculation in rodents is an unsuitable model for studying possible changes in the NOP-N/OFQ system in sepsis.