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Forensic electrochemistry applied to the sensing of new psychoactive substances: electroanalytical sensing of synthetic cathinones and analytical validation in the quantification of seized street samples.
Anal Chem. 2014 Oct 07; 86(19):9985-92.AC

Abstract

The electrochemical sensing of new psychoactive substance(s) (NPSs), synthetic cathinone derivatives also termed "legal highs", are explored with the use of metallic modified screen-printed electrochemical sensors (SPES). It is found that no significant electrochemical enhancement is evident with the use of either in situ bismuth or mercury film modified SPES compared to the bare underlying electrode substrate. In fact, the direct electrochemical reduction of the cathinone derivatives mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone; 4-MMC) and 4'-methyl-N-ethylcathinone (4-methylethcathinone; 4-MEC) is found to be possible for the first time, without heavy metal catalysis, giving rise to useful voltammetric electroanalytical signatures in model aqueous buffer solutions. This novel electroanalytical methodology is validated toward the determination of cathinone derivatives (4-MMC and 4-MEC) in three seized street samples that are independently analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) wherein excellent agreement between the two analytical protocols is found. Such an approach provides a validated laboratory tool for the quantification of synthetic cathinone derivatives and holds potential for the basis of a portable analytical sensor for the determination of synthetic cathinone derivatives in seized street samples.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Chemistry and the Environment, Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Manchester Metropolitan University , Chester Street, Manchester M1 5GD, Lancashire, U.K.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25163028

Citation

Smith, Jamie P., et al. "Forensic Electrochemistry Applied to the Sensing of New Psychoactive Substances: Electroanalytical Sensing of Synthetic Cathinones and Analytical Validation in the Quantification of Seized Street Samples." Analytical Chemistry, vol. 86, no. 19, 2014, pp. 9985-92.
Smith JP, Metters JP, Khreit OI, et al. Forensic electrochemistry applied to the sensing of new psychoactive substances: electroanalytical sensing of synthetic cathinones and analytical validation in the quantification of seized street samples. Anal Chem. 2014;86(19):9985-92.
Smith, J. P., Metters, J. P., Khreit, O. I., Sutcliffe, O. B., & Banks, C. E. (2014). Forensic electrochemistry applied to the sensing of new psychoactive substances: electroanalytical sensing of synthetic cathinones and analytical validation in the quantification of seized street samples. Analytical Chemistry, 86(19), 9985-92. https://doi.org/10.1021/ac502991g
Smith JP, et al. Forensic Electrochemistry Applied to the Sensing of New Psychoactive Substances: Electroanalytical Sensing of Synthetic Cathinones and Analytical Validation in the Quantification of Seized Street Samples. Anal Chem. 2014 Oct 7;86(19):9985-92. PubMed PMID: 25163028.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Forensic electrochemistry applied to the sensing of new psychoactive substances: electroanalytical sensing of synthetic cathinones and analytical validation in the quantification of seized street samples. AU - Smith,Jamie P, AU - Metters,Jonathan P, AU - Khreit,Osama I G, AU - Sutcliffe,Oliver B, AU - Banks,Craig E, Y1 - 2014/09/08/ PY - 2014/8/28/entrez PY - 2014/8/28/pubmed PY - 2015/8/22/medline SP - 9985 EP - 92 JF - Analytical chemistry JO - Anal. Chem. VL - 86 IS - 19 N2 - The electrochemical sensing of new psychoactive substance(s) (NPSs), synthetic cathinone derivatives also termed "legal highs", are explored with the use of metallic modified screen-printed electrochemical sensors (SPES). It is found that no significant electrochemical enhancement is evident with the use of either in situ bismuth or mercury film modified SPES compared to the bare underlying electrode substrate. In fact, the direct electrochemical reduction of the cathinone derivatives mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone; 4-MMC) and 4'-methyl-N-ethylcathinone (4-methylethcathinone; 4-MEC) is found to be possible for the first time, without heavy metal catalysis, giving rise to useful voltammetric electroanalytical signatures in model aqueous buffer solutions. This novel electroanalytical methodology is validated toward the determination of cathinone derivatives (4-MMC and 4-MEC) in three seized street samples that are independently analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) wherein excellent agreement between the two analytical protocols is found. Such an approach provides a validated laboratory tool for the quantification of synthetic cathinone derivatives and holds potential for the basis of a portable analytical sensor for the determination of synthetic cathinone derivatives in seized street samples. SN - 1520-6882 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25163028/Forensic_electrochemistry_applied_to_the_sensing_of_new_psychoactive_substances:_electroanalytical_sensing_of_synthetic_cathinones_and_analytical_validation_in_the_quantification_of_seized_street_samples_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac502991g DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -