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Comparison of intermittent and continuous exposures to inorganic mercury in the mussel, Mytilus edulis: accumulation and sub-lethal physiological effects.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2014 Nov; 109:133-42.EE

Abstract

Aquatic organisms are often subject to intermittent exposure to pollutants in real ecosystems. This study aimed to compare mercury accumulation and the physiological responses of mussels, Mytilus edulis during continuous and intermittent exposure to the metal. Mussels were treated in a semi-static, triplicated design to either a control (no added Hg) or 50 µg l(-1) Hg as HgCl2 in continuous (daily) or intermittent (2 day exposure, 2 days in clean seawater alternately) exposure for 14 days. A time-dependent increase in Hg accumulation was observed in the continuous exposure, while the intermittent treatment showed step-wise changes in Hg concentrations with the exposure profile, especially in the gills. At the end of the experiment, tissue Hg concentrations were significantly increased in the continuous compared to the intermittent exposure for digestive gland (4 fold), gonad and remaining soft tissue (>2 fold), but not for the gill and adductor muscle. There was no observed oxidative damage at the end of the experiment as measured by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentrations in tissues from all treatments. However, total glutathione was significantly decreased in the gill and digestive gland of both the continuous and intermittent exposure by the end of the experiment. The neutral red retention ability of the haemocytes was not affected, but total haemocyte counts were significantly decreased (<2 fold) in the intermittent compared to the continuous exposure. Histopathological examinations showed less pathology in the gill, but more inflammation in the digestive gland of mussels for the intermittent compared to the continuous exposure. Overall, the results showed that Hg accumulation from intermittent exposure was less than that of the continuous exposure regime, but the sub-lethal responses are sometimes more severe than expected in the former.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Ecotoxicology Research and Innovation Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, PL4 8AA, UK; Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Environment, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, P.M.B 5080, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Electronic address: dokuboba.amachree@plymouth.ac.uk.Ecotoxicology Research and Innovation Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, PL4 8AA, UK.Ecotoxicology Research and Innovation Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, PL4 8AA, UK.

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25178526

Citation

Amachree, Dokuboba, et al. "Comparison of Intermittent and Continuous Exposures to Inorganic Mercury in the Mussel, Mytilus Edulis: Accumulation and Sub-lethal Physiological Effects." Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, vol. 109, 2014, pp. 133-42.
Amachree D, Moody AJ, Handy RD. Comparison of intermittent and continuous exposures to inorganic mercury in the mussel, Mytilus edulis: accumulation and sub-lethal physiological effects. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2014;109:133-42.
Amachree, D., Moody, A. J., & Handy, R. D. (2014). Comparison of intermittent and continuous exposures to inorganic mercury in the mussel, Mytilus edulis: accumulation and sub-lethal physiological effects. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 109, 133-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.07.025
Amachree D, Moody AJ, Handy RD. Comparison of Intermittent and Continuous Exposures to Inorganic Mercury in the Mussel, Mytilus Edulis: Accumulation and Sub-lethal Physiological Effects. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2014;109:133-42. PubMed PMID: 25178526.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Comparison of intermittent and continuous exposures to inorganic mercury in the mussel, Mytilus edulis: accumulation and sub-lethal physiological effects. AU - Amachree,Dokuboba, AU - Moody,A John, AU - Handy,Richard D, Y1 - 2014/08/30/ PY - 2014/02/12/received PY - 2014/07/22/revised PY - 2014/07/24/accepted PY - 2014/9/3/entrez PY - 2014/9/3/pubmed PY - 2014/12/15/medline KW - Accumulation KW - Body distribution KW - Granulocytomas KW - Hg uptake KW - Pulse exposure KW - Total glutathione SP - 133 EP - 42 JF - Ecotoxicology and environmental safety JO - Ecotoxicol Environ Saf VL - 109 N2 - Aquatic organisms are often subject to intermittent exposure to pollutants in real ecosystems. This study aimed to compare mercury accumulation and the physiological responses of mussels, Mytilus edulis during continuous and intermittent exposure to the metal. Mussels were treated in a semi-static, triplicated design to either a control (no added Hg) or 50 µg l(-1) Hg as HgCl2 in continuous (daily) or intermittent (2 day exposure, 2 days in clean seawater alternately) exposure for 14 days. A time-dependent increase in Hg accumulation was observed in the continuous exposure, while the intermittent treatment showed step-wise changes in Hg concentrations with the exposure profile, especially in the gills. At the end of the experiment, tissue Hg concentrations were significantly increased in the continuous compared to the intermittent exposure for digestive gland (4 fold), gonad and remaining soft tissue (>2 fold), but not for the gill and adductor muscle. There was no observed oxidative damage at the end of the experiment as measured by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentrations in tissues from all treatments. However, total glutathione was significantly decreased in the gill and digestive gland of both the continuous and intermittent exposure by the end of the experiment. The neutral red retention ability of the haemocytes was not affected, but total haemocyte counts were significantly decreased (<2 fold) in the intermittent compared to the continuous exposure. Histopathological examinations showed less pathology in the gill, but more inflammation in the digestive gland of mussels for the intermittent compared to the continuous exposure. Overall, the results showed that Hg accumulation from intermittent exposure was less than that of the continuous exposure regime, but the sub-lethal responses are sometimes more severe than expected in the former. SN - 1090-2414 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25178526/Comparison_of_intermittent_and_continuous_exposures_to_inorganic_mercury_in_the_mussel_Mytilus_edulis:_accumulation_and_sub_lethal_physiological_effects_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0147-6513(14)00345-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -