Community acquired bacterial pneumonia: aetiology, laboratory detection and antibiotic susceptibility pattern.Malays J Pathol. 2014 Aug; 36(2):97-103.MJ
This cross sectional study was conducted to identify the common bacterial causes of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) from sputum and blood by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and to evaluate the effectiveness of these tests. A total of 105 sputum and blood samples were collected from patients with pneumonia on clinical suspicion. Common causative bacterial agents of pneumonia were detected by Gram staining, cultures, biochemical tests and PCR. Among 55 sputum culture positive cases, a majority (61.82%) of the patients were in the age group between 21-50 years and the ratio between male and female was 2.5:1. Most (61.90%) of the cases were from the lower socio-economic group. Out of 105 samples, 23 (37.12%) were positive by Gram stain, 29 (27.62%) yielded growth in culture media and 37 (35.24%) were positive by PCR for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common aetiological agent (19.05%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (13.33%), Haemophilus influenzae (8.57%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.71%). Multiplex PCR is a useful technique for rapid diagnosis of bacterial causes of pneumonia directly from sputum and blood. Considering culture as a gold standard, the sensitivity of PCR was 96.55% and specificity was 88.15%. More than 80% of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were found to be sensitive to ampicillin, amoxycillinclavulanate, and ceftriaxone. Susceptibilities to other antimicrobials ranged from 65% for azithromycin to 70% for levofloxacin. On the other hand, the Gram negative organisms were more sensitive to meropenem, ceftriaxone, amoxycillin-clavulanate and amikacin.