Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

The strength of aversive and appetitive associations and maladaptive behaviors.
IUBMB Life. 2014 Aug; 66(8):559-71.IL

Abstract

Certain maladaptive behaviors are thought to be acquired through classical Pavlovian conditioning. Exaggerated fear response, which can develop through Pavlovian conditioning, is associated with acquired anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSDs). Inflated reward-seeking behavior, which develops through Pavlovian conditioning, underlies some types of addictive behavior (e.g., addiction to drugs, food, and gambling). These maladaptive behaviors are dependent on associative learning and the development of long-term memory (LTM). In animal models, an aversive reinforcer (fear conditioning) encodes an aversive contextual and cued LTM. On the other hand, an appetitive reinforcer results in conditioned place preference (CPP) that encodes an appetitive contextual LTM. The literature on weak and strong associative learning pertaining to the development of aversive and appetitive LTM is relatively scarce; thus, this review is particularly focused on the strength of associative learning. The strength of associative learning is dependent on the valence of the reinforcer and the salience of the conditioned stimulus that ultimately sways the strength of the memory trace. Our studies suggest that labile (weak) aversive and appetitive LTM may share similar signaling pathways, whereas stable (strong) aversive and appetitive LTM is mediated through different pathways. In addition, we provide some evidence suggesting that extinction of aversive fear memory and appetitive drug memory is likely to be mediated through different signaling molecules. We put forward the importance of studies aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of weak and strong memories (aversive and appetitive), which would ultimately help in the development of targeted pharmacotherapies for the management of maladaptive behaviors that arise from classical Pavlovian conditioning.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25196552

Citation

Itzhak, Yossef, et al. "The Strength of Aversive and Appetitive Associations and Maladaptive Behaviors." IUBMB Life, vol. 66, no. 8, 2014, pp. 559-71.
Itzhak Y, Perez-Lanza D, Liddie S. The strength of aversive and appetitive associations and maladaptive behaviors. IUBMB Life. 2014;66(8):559-71.
Itzhak, Y., Perez-Lanza, D., & Liddie, S. (2014). The strength of aversive and appetitive associations and maladaptive behaviors. IUBMB Life, 66(8), 559-71. https://doi.org/10.1002/iub.1310
Itzhak Y, Perez-Lanza D, Liddie S. The Strength of Aversive and Appetitive Associations and Maladaptive Behaviors. IUBMB Life. 2014;66(8):559-71. PubMed PMID: 25196552.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The strength of aversive and appetitive associations and maladaptive behaviors. AU - Itzhak,Yossef, AU - Perez-Lanza,Daniel, AU - Liddie,Shervin, Y1 - 2014/09/05/ PY - 2014/07/18/received PY - 2014/08/22/revised PY - 2014/08/23/accepted PY - 2014/9/9/entrez PY - 2014/9/10/pubmed PY - 2015/6/2/medline KW - Pavlovian conditioning KW - appetitive memory KW - aversive memory KW - cocaine KW - fear conditioning KW - memory strength KW - nitric oxide SP - 559 EP - 71 JF - IUBMB life JO - IUBMB Life VL - 66 IS - 8 N2 - Certain maladaptive behaviors are thought to be acquired through classical Pavlovian conditioning. Exaggerated fear response, which can develop through Pavlovian conditioning, is associated with acquired anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSDs). Inflated reward-seeking behavior, which develops through Pavlovian conditioning, underlies some types of addictive behavior (e.g., addiction to drugs, food, and gambling). These maladaptive behaviors are dependent on associative learning and the development of long-term memory (LTM). In animal models, an aversive reinforcer (fear conditioning) encodes an aversive contextual and cued LTM. On the other hand, an appetitive reinforcer results in conditioned place preference (CPP) that encodes an appetitive contextual LTM. The literature on weak and strong associative learning pertaining to the development of aversive and appetitive LTM is relatively scarce; thus, this review is particularly focused on the strength of associative learning. The strength of associative learning is dependent on the valence of the reinforcer and the salience of the conditioned stimulus that ultimately sways the strength of the memory trace. Our studies suggest that labile (weak) aversive and appetitive LTM may share similar signaling pathways, whereas stable (strong) aversive and appetitive LTM is mediated through different pathways. In addition, we provide some evidence suggesting that extinction of aversive fear memory and appetitive drug memory is likely to be mediated through different signaling molecules. We put forward the importance of studies aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of weak and strong memories (aversive and appetitive), which would ultimately help in the development of targeted pharmacotherapies for the management of maladaptive behaviors that arise from classical Pavlovian conditioning. SN - 1521-6551 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25196552/The_strength_of_aversive_and_appetitive_associations_and_maladaptive_behaviors_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/iub.1310 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -