Long-Term Endovascular Treatment Outcome of 46 Patients with Cavernous Sinus Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas Presenting with Ophthalmic Symptoms. A Non-Controlled Trial with Clinical and Angiographic Follow-up.Neuroradiol J. 2014 Sep; 27(4):461-70.NJ
Ocular symptoms are regularly observed in patients with cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulas (cDAVF). We aimed to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of endovascular approaches in patients with cDAVF presenting with different ocular symptoms. In a prospective study between June 2008 and March 2013, 46 patients with ocular symptoms due to cDAVF who were not eligible for conservative therapy, met the inclusion criteria and underwent endovascular treatment. They underwent a transarterial approach with histoacryl glue injections or transvenous coil embolization, all in one session. They were followed up for a mean period of 17.3 months (range 7 to 30 months) clinically and using angiography. The mean age of patients was 36.8 years (18-60) and 65% of them were male. All patients showed venous drainage into the superior and inferior orbital veins. Access to the cavernous sinus was transvenous in ten patients, transarterial in 26 patients, and mixed in ten patients. Initial symptoms were improved in 97.8% of patients and did not recur during the study follow-up. The procedural complications included: blurred vision, transient sixth nerve palsy and exacerbation of chemoproptosis in two, one and two patients respectively that completely resolved in initial weeks with no recurrence. No patient worsened or developed new symptoms suggestive of a recurrent fistula during the follow-up period. One patient experienced intracranial dissection of the internal carotid artery and ischemic stroke with an unfinished procedure. The relief of early presentation was durable in long-term follow-up and the cured lesions were stable in angiographic controls. Favorable and durable outcomes could be obtained following endovascular approaches for cDAVF presenting with different ocular symptoms.