Effect of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of empagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Clin Ther. 2014 Nov 01; 36(11):1606-15.CT
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and safety profiles of empagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
In an open-label, parallel-group study, 32 Japanese patients with T2DM and different degrees of renal function (n = 8 per renal function category: normal renal function, estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR; Japanese equation] ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m(2); mild renal impairment, eGFR of 60-<90 mL/min/1.73 m(2); moderate renal impairment, eGFR of 30-<60 mL/min/1.73 m(2); and severe renal impairment, eGFR of 15-<30 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) received a single 25 mg dose of empagliflozin.
Empagliflozin exposure increased with increasing renal impairment. Maximum empagliflozin plasma concentrations were similar among all renal function groups. Adjusted geometric mean ratios for extent of exposure (AUC0-∞) to empagliflozin versus normal renal function were 128.8% (95% CI, 106.0-156.6%), 143.8% (95% CI, 118.3-174.8%), and 152.3% (95% CI, 125.3-185.2%) for patients with mild, moderate, and severe renal impairment, respectively. Decreases in renal clearance of empagliflozin correlated with eGFR. Urinary glucose excretion decreased with increasing renal impairment and correlated with eGFR (adjusted mean [SE] change from baseline: 75.0 [4.84] g, 62.6 [5.75] g, 57.9 [4.86] g, and 23.7 [5.24] g for patients with normal renal function and mild, moderate, and severe renal impairment, respectively). Only 2 patients (6%) had adverse events; both were mild.
Pharmacokinetic data suggest that no dose adjustment of empagliflozin is necessary in Japanese patients with T2DM and renal impairment because increases in exposure were <2-fold. Urinary glucose excretion decreased with increasing renal impairment. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01581658.