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Outbreak of Trichinella spiralis infections associated with a wild boar hunted at a game farm in Iowa.
Clin Infect Dis 2014; 59(12):1750-6CI

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Rates of trichinellosis have declined significantly in the United States due to improved pork production practices and public awareness of the danger of eating raw or undercooked pork. In April 2011, the Minnesota Department of Health received a report of presumptive trichinellosis in a 50-year-old man with a history of wild boar consumption. A public health investigation was initiated.

METHODS

Medical record reviews and patient and family interviews were conducted. Trichinella species serology was performed on patient and family serum samples, and larval identification was attempted on clinical specimens and meat samples.

RESULTS

The index patient harvested a wild boar from an Iowa game farm; he processed the meat after returning home and developed gastrointestinal symptoms 2 days later. Four days after his illness onset, all 5 family members consumed a roast from the boar. The index patient sought healthcare 4 times after illness onset before being definitively diagnosed with trichinellosis. Following initiation of albendazole therapy, the index patient developed atrial fibrillation. One additional family member who processed the raw meat was diagnosed with trichinellosis. Trichinella spiralis larvae were identified in wild boar meat samples.

CONCLUSIONS

Trichinellosis has long been recognized as a potential hazard of consuming undercooked wild carnivore meat, and historically has been associated with consumption of pork from domestic swine, but may be unfamiliar to practicing clinicians in the United States. Education of hunters and the broader population on the potential for trichinellosis and the importance of proper handling and cooking meat from wild or free-range animals needs to be reinforced.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of State and Local Readiness, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia Minnesota Department of Health, Saint Paul.Infectious Disease and Microbiology, Gundersen Medical Foundation, La Crosse, Wisconsin.Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship.Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship.Iowa Department of Public Health, Des Moines.Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.Agriculture Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland.Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul.Minnesota Department of Health, Saint Paul.Minnesota Department of Health, Saint Paul.

Pub Type(s)

Case Reports
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25214511

Citation

Holzbauer, Stacy M., et al. "Outbreak of Trichinella Spiralis Infections Associated With a Wild Boar Hunted at a Game Farm in Iowa." Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, vol. 59, no. 12, 2014, pp. 1750-6.
Holzbauer SM, Agger WA, Hall RL, et al. Outbreak of Trichinella spiralis infections associated with a wild boar hunted at a game farm in Iowa. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;59(12):1750-6.
Holzbauer, S. M., Agger, W. A., Hall, R. L., Johnson, G. M., Schmitt, D., Garvey, A., ... Smith, K. E. (2014). Outbreak of Trichinella spiralis infections associated with a wild boar hunted at a game farm in Iowa. Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 59(12), pp. 1750-6. doi:10.1093/cid/ciu713.
Holzbauer SM, et al. Outbreak of Trichinella Spiralis Infections Associated With a Wild Boar Hunted at a Game Farm in Iowa. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Dec 15;59(12):1750-6. PubMed PMID: 25214511.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Outbreak of Trichinella spiralis infections associated with a wild boar hunted at a game farm in Iowa. AU - Holzbauer,Stacy M, AU - Agger,William A, AU - Hall,Rebecca L, AU - Johnson,Gary M, AU - Schmitt,David, AU - Garvey,Ann, AU - Bishop,Henry S, AU - Rivera,Hilda, AU - de Almeida,Marcos E, AU - Hill,Dolores, AU - Stromberg,Bert E, AU - Lynfield,Ruth, AU - Smith,Kirk E, Y1 - 2014/09/11/ PY - 2014/9/13/entrez PY - 2014/9/13/pubmed PY - 2015/9/2/medline KW - Trichinella spiralis KW - human trichinellosis KW - outbreak KW - pork KW - wild boar SP - 1750 EP - 6 JF - Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America JO - Clin. Infect. Dis. VL - 59 IS - 12 N2 - BACKGROUND: Rates of trichinellosis have declined significantly in the United States due to improved pork production practices and public awareness of the danger of eating raw or undercooked pork. In April 2011, the Minnesota Department of Health received a report of presumptive trichinellosis in a 50-year-old man with a history of wild boar consumption. A public health investigation was initiated. METHODS: Medical record reviews and patient and family interviews were conducted. Trichinella species serology was performed on patient and family serum samples, and larval identification was attempted on clinical specimens and meat samples. RESULTS: The index patient harvested a wild boar from an Iowa game farm; he processed the meat after returning home and developed gastrointestinal symptoms 2 days later. Four days after his illness onset, all 5 family members consumed a roast from the boar. The index patient sought healthcare 4 times after illness onset before being definitively diagnosed with trichinellosis. Following initiation of albendazole therapy, the index patient developed atrial fibrillation. One additional family member who processed the raw meat was diagnosed with trichinellosis. Trichinella spiralis larvae were identified in wild boar meat samples. CONCLUSIONS: Trichinellosis has long been recognized as a potential hazard of consuming undercooked wild carnivore meat, and historically has been associated with consumption of pork from domestic swine, but may be unfamiliar to practicing clinicians in the United States. Education of hunters and the broader population on the potential for trichinellosis and the importance of proper handling and cooking meat from wild or free-range animals needs to be reinforced. SN - 1537-6591 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25214511/Outbreak_of_Trichinella_spiralis_infections_associated_with_a_wild_boar_hunted_at_a_game_farm_in_Iowa_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/cid/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/cid/ciu713 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -