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Oral fluid cannabinoids in chronic frequent cannabis smokers during ad libitum cannabis smoking.
Drug Test Anal 2015; 7(6):494-501DT

Abstract

Oral fluid (OF) offers a simple, non-invasive, directly observable sample collection for clinical and forensic drug testing. Given that chronic cannabis smokers often engage in drug administration multiple times daily, evaluating OF cannabinoid pharmacokinetics during ad libitum smoking is important for practical development of analytical methods and informed interpretation of test results. Eleven cannabis smokers resided in a closed research unit for 51 days, and underwent four, 5-day oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) treatments. Each medication period was separated by 9 days of ad libitum cannabis smoking from 12:00 to 23:00 h daily. Ten OF samples were collected from 9:00-22:00 h on each of the last ad libitum smoking days (Study Days 4, 18, 32, and 46). As the number of cannabis cigarettes smoked increased over the study days, OF THC, cannabinol (CBN), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) also increased with a significant effect of time since last smoking (Δtime; range, 0.0-17.4 h) and ≥88% detection rates; concentrations on Day 4 were significantly lower than those on Days 32 and 46 but not Day 18. Within 30 min of smoking, median THC, CBN, and THCCOOH concentrations were 689 µg/L, 116 µg/L, and 147 ng/L, respectively, decreasing to 19.4 µg/L, 2.4 µg/L, and 87.6 ng/L after 10 h. Cannabidiol and 11-hydroxy-THC showed overall lower detection rates of 29 and 8.6%, respectively. Cannabinoid disposition in OF was highly influenced by Δtime and composition of smoked cannabis. Furthermore, cannabinoid OF concentrations increased over ad libitum smoking days, in parallel with increased cannabis self-administration, possibly reflecting development of increased cannabis tolerance.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Chemistry and Drug Metabolism, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Baltimore, MD, USA.Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.Chemistry and Drug Metabolism, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Baltimore, MD, USA.Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.Chemistry and Drug Metabolism, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Baltimore, MD, USA.Chemistry and Drug Metabolism, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25220020

Citation

Lee, Dayong, et al. "Oral Fluid Cannabinoids in Chronic Frequent Cannabis Smokers During Ad Libitum Cannabis Smoking." Drug Testing and Analysis, vol. 7, no. 6, 2015, pp. 494-501.
Lee D, Vandrey R, Mendu DR, et al. Oral fluid cannabinoids in chronic frequent cannabis smokers during ad libitum cannabis smoking. Drug Test Anal. 2015;7(6):494-501.
Lee, D., Vandrey, R., Mendu, D. R., Murray, J. A., Barnes, A. J., & Huestis, M. A. (2015). Oral fluid cannabinoids in chronic frequent cannabis smokers during ad libitum cannabis smoking. Drug Testing and Analysis, 7(6), pp. 494-501. doi:10.1002/dta.1718.
Lee D, et al. Oral Fluid Cannabinoids in Chronic Frequent Cannabis Smokers During Ad Libitum Cannabis Smoking. Drug Test Anal. 2015;7(6):494-501. PubMed PMID: 25220020.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Oral fluid cannabinoids in chronic frequent cannabis smokers during ad libitum cannabis smoking. AU - Lee,Dayong, AU - Vandrey,Ryan, AU - Mendu,Damodara R, AU - Murray,Jeannie A, AU - Barnes,Allan J, AU - Huestis,Marilyn A, Y1 - 2014/09/14/ PY - 2014/05/27/received PY - 2014/07/28/revised PY - 2014/08/11/accepted PY - 2014/9/16/entrez PY - 2014/9/16/pubmed PY - 2016/3/15/medline KW - cannabinoid KW - cannabis KW - delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol KW - oral fluid SP - 494 EP - 501 JF - Drug testing and analysis JO - Drug Test Anal VL - 7 IS - 6 N2 - Oral fluid (OF) offers a simple, non-invasive, directly observable sample collection for clinical and forensic drug testing. Given that chronic cannabis smokers often engage in drug administration multiple times daily, evaluating OF cannabinoid pharmacokinetics during ad libitum smoking is important for practical development of analytical methods and informed interpretation of test results. Eleven cannabis smokers resided in a closed research unit for 51 days, and underwent four, 5-day oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) treatments. Each medication period was separated by 9 days of ad libitum cannabis smoking from 12:00 to 23:00 h daily. Ten OF samples were collected from 9:00-22:00 h on each of the last ad libitum smoking days (Study Days 4, 18, 32, and 46). As the number of cannabis cigarettes smoked increased over the study days, OF THC, cannabinol (CBN), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) also increased with a significant effect of time since last smoking (Δtime; range, 0.0-17.4 h) and ≥88% detection rates; concentrations on Day 4 were significantly lower than those on Days 32 and 46 but not Day 18. Within 30 min of smoking, median THC, CBN, and THCCOOH concentrations were 689 µg/L, 116 µg/L, and 147 ng/L, respectively, decreasing to 19.4 µg/L, 2.4 µg/L, and 87.6 ng/L after 10 h. Cannabidiol and 11-hydroxy-THC showed overall lower detection rates of 29 and 8.6%, respectively. Cannabinoid disposition in OF was highly influenced by Δtime and composition of smoked cannabis. Furthermore, cannabinoid OF concentrations increased over ad libitum smoking days, in parallel with increased cannabis self-administration, possibly reflecting development of increased cannabis tolerance. SN - 1942-7611 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25220020/Oral_fluid_cannabinoids_in_chronic_frequent_cannabis_smokers_during_ad_libitum_cannabis_smoking_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.1718 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -