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Meal timing during alternate day fasting: Impact on body weight and cardiovascular disease risk in obese adults.
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014 Dec; 22(12):2524-31.O

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Alternate day fasting (ADF; 24-h feeding/24-h 25% energy intake at lunchtime), is effective for weight loss, but diet tolerability is questionable. Moving the fast day meal to dinnertime, or dividing it into smaller meals, may improve tolerability. Accordingly, this study compared the effects of ADF with three meal times on body weight and heart disease risk.

METHODS

Obese subjects (n = 74) were randomized to 1 of 3 groups for 8 weeks: 1) ADF-L: lunch, 2) ADF-D: dinner, or 3) ADF-SM: small meals.

RESULTS

Body weight decreased similarly (P < 0.001) in all groups (ADF-L: 3.5 ± 0.4 kg, ADF-D 4.1 ± 0.5 kg, ADF-SM 4.0 ± 0.5 kg). Reductions (P < 0.001) in fat mass and visceral fat were also comparable. Plasma lipids remained unchanged, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size increased (P < 0.05) in all groups (1.3 ± 0.5 Å). Systolic blood pressure decreased (P < 0.05) by ADF-SM only. Fasting glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR remained unchanged.

CONCLUSIONS

Thus, allowing individuals to consume the fast day meal at dinner or small meals produces similar weight loss and cardio-protection as consuming the meal at lunch. This flexibility in meal timing may increase tolerability and long-term adherence to ADF protocols.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25251676

Citation

Hoddy, Kristin K., et al. "Meal Timing During Alternate Day Fasting: Impact On Body Weight and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Obese Adults." Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), vol. 22, no. 12, 2014, pp. 2524-31.
Hoddy KK, Kroeger CM, Trepanowski JF, et al. Meal timing during alternate day fasting: Impact on body weight and cardiovascular disease risk in obese adults. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014;22(12):2524-31.
Hoddy, K. K., Kroeger, C. M., Trepanowski, J. F., Barnosky, A., Bhutani, S., & Varady, K. A. (2014). Meal timing during alternate day fasting: Impact on body weight and cardiovascular disease risk in obese adults. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), 22(12), 2524-31. https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.20909
Hoddy KK, et al. Meal Timing During Alternate Day Fasting: Impact On Body Weight and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Obese Adults. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014;22(12):2524-31. PubMed PMID: 25251676.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Meal timing during alternate day fasting: Impact on body weight and cardiovascular disease risk in obese adults. AU - Hoddy,Kristin K, AU - Kroeger,Cynthia M, AU - Trepanowski,John F, AU - Barnosky,Adrienne, AU - Bhutani,Surabhi, AU - Varady,Krista A, Y1 - 2014/09/24/ PY - 2014/07/07/received PY - 2014/08/30/accepted PY - 2014/9/25/entrez PY - 2014/9/25/pubmed PY - 2015/9/17/medline SP - 2524 EP - 31 JF - Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) JO - Obesity (Silver Spring) VL - 22 IS - 12 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Alternate day fasting (ADF; 24-h feeding/24-h 25% energy intake at lunchtime), is effective for weight loss, but diet tolerability is questionable. Moving the fast day meal to dinnertime, or dividing it into smaller meals, may improve tolerability. Accordingly, this study compared the effects of ADF with three meal times on body weight and heart disease risk. METHODS: Obese subjects (n = 74) were randomized to 1 of 3 groups for 8 weeks: 1) ADF-L: lunch, 2) ADF-D: dinner, or 3) ADF-SM: small meals. RESULTS: Body weight decreased similarly (P < 0.001) in all groups (ADF-L: 3.5 ± 0.4 kg, ADF-D 4.1 ± 0.5 kg, ADF-SM 4.0 ± 0.5 kg). Reductions (P < 0.001) in fat mass and visceral fat were also comparable. Plasma lipids remained unchanged, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size increased (P < 0.05) in all groups (1.3 ± 0.5 Å). Systolic blood pressure decreased (P < 0.05) by ADF-SM only. Fasting glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, allowing individuals to consume the fast day meal at dinner or small meals produces similar weight loss and cardio-protection as consuming the meal at lunch. This flexibility in meal timing may increase tolerability and long-term adherence to ADF protocols. SN - 1930-739X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25251676/Meal_timing_during_alternate_day_fasting:_Impact_on_body_weight_and_cardiovascular_disease_risk_in_obese_adults_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.20909 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -