Incidence of fovea plana in normal children.J AAPOS. 2014 Oct; 18(5):471-5.JA
To characterize the prevalence and features of subclinical foveal hypoplasia detected by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in children.
Fast macular OCT scans were performed on normal children with normal vision for the development of a normative OCT-3 database; from this data, eyes with no discernable foveal depression were identified. When possible, the ocular imaging was repeated 3 years later using both OCT-3 and spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT). SD-OCT results were compared to age-matched controls.
Of the 286 normal children (mean age, 8.6 ± 3.1 years) scanned, 9 (mean age, 8 ± 2.9 years; 6 males) were found to have bilateral shallow foveal depression on OCT-3 imaging, including 8 of 154 white children (5.4%) and 1 child of mixed ethnicity (white/black). Children with shallow foveas (n = 9) had larger average foveal thickness (FT) compared to the cohort of controls (n = 277) with a defined fovea (FT = 231.4 ± 8.8 vs 188.8 ± 25.0, resp. [P < 0.0001]). Mean macular volume did not differ from that of controls. SD-OCT performed 3 years later on 5 of the 9 children with shallow foveal depression showed persistence of the inner macular layers over the foveal center, corresponding to grades 1 or 2 of foveal hypoplasia. The FT was increased compared to 5 age-matched controls with a defined fovea (FT = 294.5 ± 5.1 vs 219.75 ± 5.68 μm, resp. [P = 0.029]).
Up to 3% of children with clinically normal eyes had an anatomically underdeveloped foveal pit bilaterally on OCT.