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Large outbreak of Legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever at a military base.
Epidemiol Infect. 2014 Nov; 142(11):2336-46.EI

Abstract

We investigated a mixed outbreak of Legionnaires' disease (LD) and Pontiac fever (PF) at a military base to identify the outbreak's environmental source as well as known legionellosis risk factors. Base workers with possible legionellosis were interviewed and, if consenting, underwent testing for legionellosis. A retrospective cohort study collected information on occupants of the buildings closest to the outbreak source. We identified 29 confirmed and probable LD and 38 PF cases. All cases were exposed to airborne pathogens from a cooling tower. Occupants of the building closest to the cooling tower were 6·9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2·2-22·0] and 5·5 (95% CI 2·1-14·5) times more likely to develop LD and PF, respectively, than occupants of the next closest building. Thorough preventive measures and aggressive responses to outbreaks, including searching for PF cases in mixed legionellosis outbreaks, are essential for legionellosis control.

Authors+Show Affiliations

U.S. Army Public Health Command,Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD,USA.Epidemic Intelligence Service,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,Atlanta, GA,USA.Epidemic Intelligence Service,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,Atlanta, GA,USA.Michigan Department of Community Health, Lansing, MI,USA.Michigan Air National Guard, Harrison Township, MI,USA.U.S. Army Public Health Command,Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD,USA.U.S. Army Public Health Command,Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD,USA.U.S. Army Public Health Command,Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD,USA.U.S. Army Public Health Command,Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD,USA.U.S. Army Public Health Command,Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD,USA.Respiratory Diseases Branch,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,Atlanta, GA,USA.Respiratory Diseases Branch,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,Atlanta, GA,USA.Respiratory Diseases Branch,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,Atlanta, GA,USA.Respiratory Diseases Branch,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,Atlanta, GA,USA.Respiratory Diseases Branch,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,Atlanta, GA,USA.Respiratory Diseases Branch,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,Atlanta, GA,USA.U.S. Army Public Health Command,Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD,USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25267405

Citation

Ambrose, J, et al. "Large Outbreak of Legionnaires' Disease and Pontiac Fever at a Military Base." Epidemiology and Infection, vol. 142, no. 11, 2014, pp. 2336-46.
Ambrose J, Hampton LM, Fleming-Dutra KE, et al. Large outbreak of Legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever at a military base. Epidemiol Infect. 2014;142(11):2336-46.
Ambrose, J., Hampton, L. M., Fleming-Dutra, K. E., Marten, C., McClusky, C., Perry, C., Clemmons, N. A., McCormic, Z., Peik, S., Mancuso, J., Brown, E., Kozak, N., Travis, T., Lucas, C., Fields, B., Hicks, L., & Cersovsky, S. B. (2014). Large outbreak of Legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever at a military base. Epidemiology and Infection, 142(11), 2336-46. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0950268813003440
Ambrose J, et al. Large Outbreak of Legionnaires' Disease and Pontiac Fever at a Military Base. Epidemiol Infect. 2014;142(11):2336-46. PubMed PMID: 25267405.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Large outbreak of Legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever at a military base. AU - Ambrose,J, AU - Hampton,L M, AU - Fleming-Dutra,K E, AU - Marten,C, AU - McClusky,C, AU - Perry,C, AU - Clemmons,N A, AU - McCormic,Z, AU - Peik,S, AU - Mancuso,J, AU - Brown,E, AU - Kozak,N, AU - Travis,T, AU - Lucas,C, AU - Fields,B, AU - Hicks,L, AU - Cersovsky,S B, PY - 2014/10/1/entrez PY - 2014/10/1/pubmed PY - 2014/12/15/medline SP - 2336 EP - 46 JF - Epidemiology and infection JO - Epidemiol Infect VL - 142 IS - 11 N2 - We investigated a mixed outbreak of Legionnaires' disease (LD) and Pontiac fever (PF) at a military base to identify the outbreak's environmental source as well as known legionellosis risk factors. Base workers with possible legionellosis were interviewed and, if consenting, underwent testing for legionellosis. A retrospective cohort study collected information on occupants of the buildings closest to the outbreak source. We identified 29 confirmed and probable LD and 38 PF cases. All cases were exposed to airborne pathogens from a cooling tower. Occupants of the building closest to the cooling tower were 6·9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2·2-22·0] and 5·5 (95% CI 2·1-14·5) times more likely to develop LD and PF, respectively, than occupants of the next closest building. Thorough preventive measures and aggressive responses to outbreaks, including searching for PF cases in mixed legionellosis outbreaks, are essential for legionellosis control. SN - 1469-4409 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25267405/Large_outbreak_of_Legionnaires'_disease_and_Pontiac_fever_at_a_military_base_ L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S0950268813003440/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -