Contributions of fat mass and fat distribution to hip bone strength in healthy postmenopausal Chinese women.J Bone Miner Metab. 2015 Sep; 33(5):507-15.JB
The fat and bone connection is complicated, and the effect of adipose tissue on hip bone strength remains unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the relative contribution of body fat accumulation and fat distribution to the determination of proximal femur strength in healthy postmenopausal Chinese women. This cross-sectional study enrolled 528 healthy postmenopausal women without medication history or known diseases. Total lean mass (LM), appendicular LM (ALM), percentage of lean mass (PLM), total fat mass (FM), appendicular FM (AFM), percentage of body fat (PBF), android and gynoid fat amount, android-to-gynoid fat ratio (AOI), bone mineral density (BMD), and proximal femur geometry were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Hip structure analysis was used to compute some variables as geometric strength-related parameters by analyzing the images of the hip generated from DXA scans. Correlation analyses among anthropometrics, variables of body composition and bone mass, and geometric indices of hip bone strength were performed with stepwise linear regression analyses as well as Pearson's correlation analysis. In univariate analysis, there were significantly inverse correlations between age, years since menopause (YSM), hip BMD, and hip geometric parameters. Bone data were positively related to height, body weight, LM, ALM, FM, AFM, and PBF but negatively related to AOI and amount of android fat (all P < 0.05). AFM and AOI were significantly related to most anthropometric parameters. AFM was positively associated with height, body weight, and BMI. AFM was negatively associated with age and YSM. AOI was negatively associated with height, body weight, and BMI. AOI positively associated with age and YSM. LM, ALM, and FM had a positive relationship with anthropometric parameters (P < 0.05 for all). PLM had a negative relationship with those parameters. The correlation between LM, ALM, FM, PLM, ALM, age, and YSM was not significant. In multivariate linear regression analysis, the hip bone strength was observed to have a consistent and unchanged positive association with AFM and a negative association with AOI, whereas its association with other variables of body composition was not significant after adjusting for age, years since menopause, height, body weight, and BMI. AFM may be a positively protective effect for hip bone strength while AOI, rather than android fat, shows a strong negative association with hip bone strength after making an adjustment for confounders (age, YSM, height, body weight, and BMI) in healthy postmenopausal Chinese women. Rational weight control and AOI reduction during menopause may have vital clinical significance in decreasing postmenopausal osteoporosis.