Role of ANP in natriuresis of head-out immersion in humans.Am J Physiol. 1989 Sep; 257(3 Pt 2):F375-82.AJ
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) may play a role in the natriuresis after acute circulatory challenges. To assess this role in head-out water immersion (HOI), we compared in clearance studies the effect of 3 h HOI with an equally natriuretic 3-h infusion of ANP [0.01 microgram.kg-1.min-1 human ANP-(99-126)] in seven healthy individuals taking a 100 mmol sodium diet. The studies were repeated after treatment with enalapril (20 mg twice daily), which in previous studies inhibited the natriuresis after ANP. HOI caused a natriuresis equal to that of ANP infusion despite an about five times smaller rise in plasma ANP. HOI increased and ANP decreased estimated renal plasma flow (ERPF). HOI increased maximal free water clearance and decreased fractional lithium reabsorption. ANP did not affect these variables but raised minimal urine osmolality. Enalapril enhanced the fall in ERPF caused by ANP and abolished its natriuretic effect; enalapril did not impair either the natriuresis after HOI or the increase in ERPF and the fall in lithium reabsorption. These data indicate that the low dosage of ANP causes natriuresis by reducing sodium absorption in a distal nephron target segment; enalapril impairs this effect, perhaps by enhancing ANP-induced vasoconstriction, which decreases delivery to this target segment. HOI, by increasing sodium delivery to this segment, is natriuretic despite only a small rise in plasma ANP. Enalapril does not impair these effects. Although a rise in plasma ANP may be one factor in the natriuresis of HOI, the present data speak against an exclusive role. Other factors determine the magnitude of the natriuretic response.