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Why some children with externalising problems develop internalising symptoms: testing two pathways in a genetically sensitive cohort study.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2015 Jul; 56(7):738-746.JC

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Children with externalising problems are at risk of developing internalising problems as they grow older. The pathways underlying this developmental association remain to be elucidated. We tested two processes that could explain why some children with externalising problems develop internalising symptoms in preadolescence: a mediation model whereby the association between early externalising and later new internalising symptoms is explained by negative experiences; and a genetic model, whereby genes influence both problems.

METHODS

We used data from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Study, a 1994-1995 birth cohort of 2,232 twins born in England and Wales. We assessed externalising and internalising problems using combined mothers' and teachers' ratings at age 5 and 12. We measured bullying victimisation, maternal dissatisfaction and academic difficulties between age 7 and 10 and used linear regression analyses to test the effects of these negative experiences on the association between early externalising and later internalising problems. We employed a Cholesky decomposition to examine the genetic influences on the association.

RESULTS

Children with externalising problems at age 5 showed increased rates of new internalising problems at age 12 (r = .24, p < .001). Negative experiences accounted for some of the association between early externalising and later internalising problems. Behavioural-genetic analyses indicated that genes influencing early externalising problems also affected later internalising problems.

CONCLUSIONS

Our findings highlight the role of genetic influences in explaining why some children with externalising problems develop internalising symptoms in preadolescence. Negative experiences also contribute to the association, possibly through gene-environment interplay. Mental health professionals should monitor the development of internalising symptoms in young children with externalising problems.

Authors+Show Affiliations

MRC Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.MRC Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.MRC Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.MRC Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.MRC Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.Stress, Psychiatry and Immunology Laboratory, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.MRC Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Twin Study

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25292456

Citation

Wertz, Jasmin, et al. "Why some Children With Externalising Problems Develop Internalising Symptoms: Testing Two Pathways in a Genetically Sensitive Cohort Study." Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, vol. 56, no. 7, 2015, pp. 738-746.
Wertz J, Zavos H, Matthews T, et al. Why some children with externalising problems develop internalising symptoms: testing two pathways in a genetically sensitive cohort study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2015;56(7):738-746.
Wertz, J., Zavos, H., Matthews, T., Harvey, K., Hunt, A., Pariante, C. M., & Arseneault, L. (2015). Why some children with externalising problems develop internalising symptoms: testing two pathways in a genetically sensitive cohort study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 56(7), 738-746. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12333
Wertz J, et al. Why some Children With Externalising Problems Develop Internalising Symptoms: Testing Two Pathways in a Genetically Sensitive Cohort Study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2015;56(7):738-746. PubMed PMID: 25292456.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Why some children with externalising problems develop internalising symptoms: testing two pathways in a genetically sensitive cohort study. AU - Wertz,Jasmin, AU - Zavos,Helena, AU - Matthews,Timothy, AU - Harvey,Kirsten, AU - Hunt,Alice, AU - Pariante,Carmine M, AU - Arseneault,Louise, Y1 - 2014/10/08/ PY - 2014/08/28/accepted PY - 2014/10/9/entrez PY - 2014/10/9/pubmed PY - 2016/3/5/medline KW - Externalising and internalising problems KW - development KW - failure model KW - genetic influence SP - 738 EP - 746 JF - Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines JO - J Child Psychol Psychiatry VL - 56 IS - 7 N2 - BACKGROUND: Children with externalising problems are at risk of developing internalising problems as they grow older. The pathways underlying this developmental association remain to be elucidated. We tested two processes that could explain why some children with externalising problems develop internalising symptoms in preadolescence: a mediation model whereby the association between early externalising and later new internalising symptoms is explained by negative experiences; and a genetic model, whereby genes influence both problems. METHODS: We used data from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Study, a 1994-1995 birth cohort of 2,232 twins born in England and Wales. We assessed externalising and internalising problems using combined mothers' and teachers' ratings at age 5 and 12. We measured bullying victimisation, maternal dissatisfaction and academic difficulties between age 7 and 10 and used linear regression analyses to test the effects of these negative experiences on the association between early externalising and later internalising problems. We employed a Cholesky decomposition to examine the genetic influences on the association. RESULTS: Children with externalising problems at age 5 showed increased rates of new internalising problems at age 12 (r = .24, p < .001). Negative experiences accounted for some of the association between early externalising and later internalising problems. Behavioural-genetic analyses indicated that genes influencing early externalising problems also affected later internalising problems. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the role of genetic influences in explaining why some children with externalising problems develop internalising symptoms in preadolescence. Negative experiences also contribute to the association, possibly through gene-environment interplay. Mental health professionals should monitor the development of internalising symptoms in young children with externalising problems. SN - 1469-7610 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25292456/Why_some_children_with_externalising_problems_develop_internalising_symptoms:_testing_two_pathways_in_a_genetically_sensitive_cohort_study_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12333 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -