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Effects of combined calcium and vitamin D supplementation on insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in multi-ethnic vitamin D-deficient adults at risk for type 2 diabetes: a pilot randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
PLoS One 2014; 9(10):e109607Plos

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To examine whether combined vitamin D and calcium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, β-cell function, inflammation and metabolic markers.

DESIGN

6-month randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

PARTICIPANTS

Ninety-five adults with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] ≤55 nmol/L at risk of type 2 diabetes (with prediabetes or an AUSDRISK score ≥15) were randomized. Analyses included participants who completed the baseline and final visits (treatment n = 35; placebo n = 45).

INTERVENTION

Daily calcium carbonate (1,200 mg) and cholecalciferol [2,000-6,000 IU to target 25(OH)D >75 nmol/L] or matching placebos for 6 months.

MEASUREMENTS

Insulin sensitivity (HOMA2%S, Matsuda index), insulin secretion (insulinogenic index, area under the curve (AUC) for C-peptide) and β-cell function (Matsuda index x AUC for C-peptide) derived from a 75 g 2-h OGTT; anthropometry; blood pressure; lipid profile; hs-CRP; TNF-α; IL-6; adiponectin; total and undercarboxylated osteocalcin.

RESULTS

Participants were middle-aged adults (mean age 54 years; 69% Europid) at risk of type 2 diabetes (48% with prediabetes). Compliance was >80% for calcium and vitamin D. Mean serum 25(OH)D concentration increased from 48 to 95 nmol/L in the treatment group (91% achieved >75 nmol/L), but remained unchanged in controls. There were no significant changes in insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and β-cell function, or in inflammatory and metabolic markers between or within the groups, before or after adjustment for potential confounders including waist circumference and season of recruitment. In a post hoc analysis restricted to participants with prediabetes, a significant beneficial effect of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S and Matsuda) was observed.

CONCLUSIONS

Daily vitamin D and calcium supplementation for 6 months may not change OGTT-derived measures of insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and β-cell function in multi-ethnic adults with low vitamin D status at risk of type 2 diabetes. However, in participants with prediabetes, supplementation with vitamin D and calcium may improve insulin sensitivity.

TRIAL REGISTRATION

Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000043235.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Medicine, NorthWest Academic Centre, The University of Melbourne, Western Health, Melbourne, Australia.Department of Medicine, NorthWest Academic Centre, The University of Melbourne, Western Health, Melbourne, Australia.Department of Medicine, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Canada.Melbourne Pathology, Melbourne, Australia; Department of Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.Department of Medicine, NorthWest Academic Centre, The University of Melbourne, Western Health, Melbourne, Australia.Melbourne Pathology, Melbourne, Australia.Department of Chronic Diseases Surveillance, Institut national de santé publique du Québec, Quebec City, Canada; Department of Medicine, Laval University, Quebec City, Canada.Department of Medicine, NorthWest Academic Centre, The University of Melbourne, Western Health, Melbourne, Australia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25299668

Citation

Gagnon, Claudia, et al. "Effects of Combined Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation On Insulin Secretion, Insulin Sensitivity and Β-cell Function in Multi-ethnic Vitamin D-deficient Adults at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes: a Pilot Randomized, Placebo-controlled Trial." PloS One, vol. 9, no. 10, 2014, pp. e109607.
Gagnon C, Daly RM, Carpentier A, et al. Effects of combined calcium and vitamin D supplementation on insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in multi-ethnic vitamin D-deficient adults at risk for type 2 diabetes: a pilot randomized, placebo-controlled trial. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(10):e109607.
Gagnon, C., Daly, R. M., Carpentier, A., Lu, Z. X., Shore-Lorenti, C., Sikaris, K., ... Ebeling, P. R. (2014). Effects of combined calcium and vitamin D supplementation on insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in multi-ethnic vitamin D-deficient adults at risk for type 2 diabetes: a pilot randomized, placebo-controlled trial. PloS One, 9(10), pp. e109607. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0109607.
Gagnon C, et al. Effects of Combined Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation On Insulin Secretion, Insulin Sensitivity and Β-cell Function in Multi-ethnic Vitamin D-deficient Adults at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes: a Pilot Randomized, Placebo-controlled Trial. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(10):e109607. PubMed PMID: 25299668.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of combined calcium and vitamin D supplementation on insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in multi-ethnic vitamin D-deficient adults at risk for type 2 diabetes: a pilot randomized, placebo-controlled trial. AU - Gagnon,Claudia, AU - Daly,Robin M, AU - Carpentier,André, AU - Lu,Zhong X, AU - Shore-Lorenti,Catherine, AU - Sikaris,Ken, AU - Jean,Sonia, AU - Ebeling,Peter R, Y1 - 2014/10/09/ PY - 2014/06/10/received PY - 2014/08/30/accepted PY - 2014/10/10/entrez PY - 2014/10/10/pubmed PY - 2015/12/22/medline SP - e109607 EP - e109607 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS ONE VL - 9 IS - 10 N2 - OBJECTIVES: To examine whether combined vitamin D and calcium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, β-cell function, inflammation and metabolic markers. DESIGN: 6-month randomized, placebo-controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-five adults with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] ≤55 nmol/L at risk of type 2 diabetes (with prediabetes or an AUSDRISK score ≥15) were randomized. Analyses included participants who completed the baseline and final visits (treatment n = 35; placebo n = 45). INTERVENTION: Daily calcium carbonate (1,200 mg) and cholecalciferol [2,000-6,000 IU to target 25(OH)D >75 nmol/L] or matching placebos for 6 months. MEASUREMENTS: Insulin sensitivity (HOMA2%S, Matsuda index), insulin secretion (insulinogenic index, area under the curve (AUC) for C-peptide) and β-cell function (Matsuda index x AUC for C-peptide) derived from a 75 g 2-h OGTT; anthropometry; blood pressure; lipid profile; hs-CRP; TNF-α; IL-6; adiponectin; total and undercarboxylated osteocalcin. RESULTS: Participants were middle-aged adults (mean age 54 years; 69% Europid) at risk of type 2 diabetes (48% with prediabetes). Compliance was >80% for calcium and vitamin D. Mean serum 25(OH)D concentration increased from 48 to 95 nmol/L in the treatment group (91% achieved >75 nmol/L), but remained unchanged in controls. There were no significant changes in insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and β-cell function, or in inflammatory and metabolic markers between or within the groups, before or after adjustment for potential confounders including waist circumference and season of recruitment. In a post hoc analysis restricted to participants with prediabetes, a significant beneficial effect of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S and Matsuda) was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Daily vitamin D and calcium supplementation for 6 months may not change OGTT-derived measures of insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and β-cell function in multi-ethnic adults with low vitamin D status at risk of type 2 diabetes. However, in participants with prediabetes, supplementation with vitamin D and calcium may improve insulin sensitivity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000043235. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25299668/Effects_of_combined_calcium_and_vitamin_D_supplementation_on_insulin_secretion_insulin_sensitivity_and_β_cell_function_in_multi_ethnic_vitamin_D_deficient_adults_at_risk_for_type_2_diabetes:_a_pilot_randomized_placebo_controlled_trial_ L2 - http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109607 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -