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Hydrogen sulfide and polysulfides as biological mediators.
Molecules. 2014 Oct 09; 19(10):16146-57.M

Abstract

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is recognized as a biological mediator with various roles such as neuromodulation, regulation of the vascular tone, cytoprotection, anti-inflammation, oxygen sensing, angiogenesis, and generation of mitochondrial energy. It is produced by cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST). The activity of CBS is enhanced by S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) and glutathionylation, while it is inhibited by nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). The activity of CSE and cysteine aminotransferase (CAT), which produces the 3MST substrate 3-mercaptopyruvate (3MP), is regulated by Ca2+. H2S is oxidized to thiosulfate in mitochondria through the sequential action of sulfide quinone oxidoreductase (SQR), sulfur dioxygenase, and rhodanese. The rates of the production and clearance of H2S determine its cellular concentration. Polysulfides (H2Sn) have been found to occur in the brain and activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channels, facilitate the translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) to the nucleus, and suppress the activity of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) by sulfurating (sulfhydrating) the target cysteine residues. A cross talk between H2S and NO also plays an important role in cardioprotection as well as regulation of the vascular tone. H2S, polysulfides, and their cross talk with NO may mediate various physiological and pathophysiological responses.

Authors+Show Affiliations

National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo 187-8502, Japan. kimura@ncnp.go.jp.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25302704

Citation

Kimura, Hideo. "Hydrogen Sulfide and Polysulfides as Biological Mediators." Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), vol. 19, no. 10, 2014, pp. 16146-57.
Kimura H. Hydrogen sulfide and polysulfides as biological mediators. Molecules. 2014;19(10):16146-57.
Kimura, H. (2014). Hydrogen sulfide and polysulfides as biological mediators. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 19(10), 16146-57. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191016146
Kimura H. Hydrogen Sulfide and Polysulfides as Biological Mediators. Molecules. 2014 Oct 9;19(10):16146-57. PubMed PMID: 25302704.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Hydrogen sulfide and polysulfides as biological mediators. A1 - Kimura,Hideo, Y1 - 2014/10/09/ PY - 2014/09/16/received PY - 2014/09/30/revised PY - 2014/10/08/accepted PY - 2014/10/11/entrez PY - 2014/10/11/pubmed PY - 2015/6/11/medline SP - 16146 EP - 57 JF - Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) JO - Molecules VL - 19 IS - 10 N2 - Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is recognized as a biological mediator with various roles such as neuromodulation, regulation of the vascular tone, cytoprotection, anti-inflammation, oxygen sensing, angiogenesis, and generation of mitochondrial energy. It is produced by cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST). The activity of CBS is enhanced by S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) and glutathionylation, while it is inhibited by nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). The activity of CSE and cysteine aminotransferase (CAT), which produces the 3MST substrate 3-mercaptopyruvate (3MP), is regulated by Ca2+. H2S is oxidized to thiosulfate in mitochondria through the sequential action of sulfide quinone oxidoreductase (SQR), sulfur dioxygenase, and rhodanese. The rates of the production and clearance of H2S determine its cellular concentration. Polysulfides (H2Sn) have been found to occur in the brain and activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channels, facilitate the translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) to the nucleus, and suppress the activity of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) by sulfurating (sulfhydrating) the target cysteine residues. A cross talk between H2S and NO also plays an important role in cardioprotection as well as regulation of the vascular tone. H2S, polysulfides, and their cross talk with NO may mediate various physiological and pathophysiological responses. SN - 1420-3049 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25302704/Hydrogen_sulfide_and_polysulfides_as_biological_mediators_ L2 - https://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=molecules191016146 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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