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Placebo and nocebo effects: an introduction to psychological and biological mechanisms.
Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2014; 225:3-15.HE

Abstract

Placebo and nocebo effects are essential components of medical practice and efficacy research, and can be regarded as a special case of context learning. A fundamental function of the central nervous system is to configure the way in which previous learned context becomes linked to corresponding responses. These responses could be either automatic procedures with little flexibility or highly adaptive procedures modified by associated contexts and consequences. Placebo and nocebo effects may represent a typical example of the combination of the two: conditioning effect, which is an inflexible, instinctual, and automatic response, and cognitive expectancy effect, which is a flexible adaptive response modified by prevailing conscious context. Given the fact that contextual learning originates in the brain, neuroimaging tools have been widely used to study placebo and nocebo effects. In addition, pretest resting state fMRI may be a valuable biomarker to predict placebo responses.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Psychiatry Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Building 120, 2nd street, Suite 101C, Charlestown, MA, 02129, USA, kongj@nmr.mgh.harvard.edu.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25304523

Citation

Kong, Jian, and Fabrizio Benedetti. "Placebo and Nocebo Effects: an Introduction to Psychological and Biological Mechanisms." Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, vol. 225, 2014, pp. 3-15.
Kong J, Benedetti F. Placebo and nocebo effects: an introduction to psychological and biological mechanisms. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2014;225:3-15.
Kong, J., & Benedetti, F. (2014). Placebo and nocebo effects: an introduction to psychological and biological mechanisms. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, 225, 3-15. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-44519-8_1
Kong J, Benedetti F. Placebo and Nocebo Effects: an Introduction to Psychological and Biological Mechanisms. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2014;225:3-15. PubMed PMID: 25304523.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Placebo and nocebo effects: an introduction to psychological and biological mechanisms. AU - Kong,Jian, AU - Benedetti,Fabrizio, PY - 2014/10/12/entrez PY - 2014/10/12/pubmed PY - 2015/2/6/medline SP - 3 EP - 15 JF - Handbook of experimental pharmacology JO - Handb Exp Pharmacol VL - 225 N2 - Placebo and nocebo effects are essential components of medical practice and efficacy research, and can be regarded as a special case of context learning. A fundamental function of the central nervous system is to configure the way in which previous learned context becomes linked to corresponding responses. These responses could be either automatic procedures with little flexibility or highly adaptive procedures modified by associated contexts and consequences. Placebo and nocebo effects may represent a typical example of the combination of the two: conditioning effect, which is an inflexible, instinctual, and automatic response, and cognitive expectancy effect, which is a flexible adaptive response modified by prevailing conscious context. Given the fact that contextual learning originates in the brain, neuroimaging tools have been widely used to study placebo and nocebo effects. In addition, pretest resting state fMRI may be a valuable biomarker to predict placebo responses. SN - 0171-2004 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25304523/Placebo_and_nocebo_effects:_an_introduction_to_psychological_and_biological_mechanisms_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-44519-8_1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -