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Chocolate consumption and risk of heart failure in the Physicians' Health Study.

Abstract

AIMS

To test the hypothesis that chocolate consumption is associated with a lower risk of heart failure (HF).

METHODS AND RESULTS

We prospectively studied 20 278 men from the Physicians' Health Study. Chocolate consumption was assessed between 1999 and 2002 via a self-administered food frequency questionnaire and HF was ascertained through annual follow-up questionnaires with validation in a subsample. We used Cox regression to estimate multivariable adjusted relative risk of HF. During a mean follow-up of 9.3 years there were 876 new cases of HF. The mean age at baseline was 66.4 ± 9.2 years. Hazard ratios [95% confidence intervals (CI)] for HF were 1.0 (ref), 0.86 (0.72-1.03), 0.80 (0.66-0.98), 0.92 (0.74-1.13), and 0.82 (0.63-1.07), for chocolate consumption of less than 1/month, 1-3/week, 2-4/week, and 5+/week, respectively, after adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol, exercise, energy intake, and history of atrial fibrillation (P for quadratic trend = 0.62). In a secondary analysis, chocolate consumption was inversely associated with risk of HF in men whose BMI was <25 kg/m(2) [HR (95% CI) = 0.59 (0.37-0.94) for consumption of 5+ servings/week, P for linear trend = 0.03) but not in those with BMI of 25+ kg/m(2) [HR (95% CI) = 1.01 (0.73-1.39), P for linear trend = 0.42, P for interaction = 0.17).

CONCLUSIONS

Our data suggest that moderate consumption of chocolate might be associated with a lower risk of HF in male physicians.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Division of Aging and the Department of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 1620 Tremont St. 3rd floor, Boston, MA, 02120, USA; Massachusetts Veterans Epidemiology and Research Information Center (MAVERIC) and Geriatric Research (GRECC), Boston, MA, USA.

    ,

    Source

    European journal of heart failure 16:12 2014 Dec pg 1372-6

    MeSH

    Aged
    Aged, 80 and over
    Aspirin
    Blood Pressure
    Cacao
    Candy
    Cohort Studies
    Diet Surveys
    Double-Blind Method
    Flavonoids
    Heart Failure
    Humans
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Physicians
    Proportional Hazards Models
    Prospective Studies
    Risk Factors
    Surveys and Questionnaires
    United States

    Pub Type(s)

    Clinical Trial
    Journal Article
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    25311633

    Citation

    Petrone, Andrew B., et al. "Chocolate Consumption and Risk of Heart Failure in the Physicians' Health Study." European Journal of Heart Failure, vol. 16, no. 12, 2014, pp. 1372-6.
    Petrone AB, Gaziano JM, Djoussé L. Chocolate consumption and risk of heart failure in the Physicians' Health Study. Eur J Heart Fail. 2014;16(12):1372-6.
    Petrone, A. B., Gaziano, J. M., & Djoussé, L. (2014). Chocolate consumption and risk of heart failure in the Physicians' Health Study. European Journal of Heart Failure, 16(12), pp. 1372-6. doi:10.1002/ejhf.180.
    Petrone AB, Gaziano JM, Djoussé L. Chocolate Consumption and Risk of Heart Failure in the Physicians' Health Study. Eur J Heart Fail. 2014;16(12):1372-6. PubMed PMID: 25311633.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Chocolate consumption and risk of heart failure in the Physicians' Health Study. AU - Petrone,Andrew B, AU - Gaziano,J Michael, AU - Djoussé,Luc, Y1 - 2014/10/14/ PY - 2014/07/01/received PY - 2014/08/22/revised PY - 2014/09/12/accepted PY - 2014/10/15/entrez PY - 2014/10/15/pubmed PY - 2015/8/1/medline KW - Epidemiology KW - Heart failure KW - Nutrition KW - Risk factors SP - 1372 EP - 6 JF - European journal of heart failure JO - Eur. J. Heart Fail. VL - 16 IS - 12 N2 - AIMS: To test the hypothesis that chocolate consumption is associated with a lower risk of heart failure (HF). METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively studied 20 278 men from the Physicians' Health Study. Chocolate consumption was assessed between 1999 and 2002 via a self-administered food frequency questionnaire and HF was ascertained through annual follow-up questionnaires with validation in a subsample. We used Cox regression to estimate multivariable adjusted relative risk of HF. During a mean follow-up of 9.3 years there were 876 new cases of HF. The mean age at baseline was 66.4 ± 9.2 years. Hazard ratios [95% confidence intervals (CI)] for HF were 1.0 (ref), 0.86 (0.72-1.03), 0.80 (0.66-0.98), 0.92 (0.74-1.13), and 0.82 (0.63-1.07), for chocolate consumption of less than 1/month, 1-3/week, 2-4/week, and 5+/week, respectively, after adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol, exercise, energy intake, and history of atrial fibrillation (P for quadratic trend = 0.62). In a secondary analysis, chocolate consumption was inversely associated with risk of HF in men whose BMI was <25 kg/m(2) [HR (95% CI) = 0.59 (0.37-0.94) for consumption of 5+ servings/week, P for linear trend = 0.03) but not in those with BMI of 25+ kg/m(2) [HR (95% CI) = 1.01 (0.73-1.39), P for linear trend = 0.42, P for interaction = 0.17). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that moderate consumption of chocolate might be associated with a lower risk of HF in male physicians. SN - 1879-0844 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25311633/Chocolate_consumption_and_risk_of_heart_failure_in_the_Physicians'_Health_Study_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.180 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -