Dietary tomato and lycopene impact androgen signaling- and carcinogenesis-related gene expression during early TRAMP prostate carcinogenesis.Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2014 Dec; 7(12):1228-39.CP
Consumption of tomato products containing the carotenoid lycopene is associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. To identify gene expression patterns associated with early testosterone-driven prostate carcinogenesis, which are impacted by dietary tomato and lycopene, wild-type (WT) and transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice were fed control or tomato- or lycopene-containing diets from 4 to 10 weeks of age. Eight-week-old mice underwent sham surgery, castration, or castration followed by testosterone repletion (2.5 mg/kg/d initiated 1 week after castration). Ten-week-old intact TRAMP mice exhibit early multifocal prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Of the 200 prostate cancer-related genes measured by quantitative NanoString, 189 are detectable, 164 significantly differ by genotype, 179 by testosterone status, and 30 by diet type (P < 0.05). In TRAMP, expression of Birc5, Mki67, Aurkb, Ccnb2, Foxm1, and Ccne2 is greater compared with WT and is decreased by castration. In parallel, castration reduces Ki67-positive staining (P < 0.0001) compared with intact and testosterone-repleted TRAMP mice. Expression of genes involved in androgen metabolism/signaling pathways is reduced by lycopene feeding (Srd5a1) and by tomato feeding (Srd5a2, Pxn, and Srebf1). In addition, tomato feeding significantly reduced expression of genes associated with stem cell features, Aldh1a and Ly6a, whereas lycopene feeding significantly reduced expression of neuroendocrine differentiation-related genes, Ngfr and Syp. Collectively, these studies demonstrate a profile of testosterone-regulated genes associated with early prostate carcinogenesis that are potential mechanistic targets of dietary tomato components. Future studies on androgen signaling/metabolism, stem cell features, and neuroendocrine differentiation pathways may elucidate the mechanisms by which dietary tomato and lycopene impact prostate cancer risk.