Compassionate use of bedaquiline for the treatment of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis: interim analysis of a French cohort.Clin Infect Dis 2015; 60(2):188-94CI
Bedaquiline is a new antibiotic that was approved for the treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis. We aimed to evaluate the short-term microbiological efficacy and the tolerability profile of bedaquiline.
We performed a retrospective cohort study among patients with MDR tuberculosis receiving bedaquiline for compassionate use between January 2010 and July 2013 and evaluated at 6 months of bedaquiline treatment.
A total of 35 patients with MDR tuberculosis were included in the study. Nineteen (54%) had extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis, and 14 (40%) had isolates resistant to fluoroquinolones (Fqs) or second-line injectables. Bedaquiline was associated with a median of 4 (range, 2-5) other drugs, including linezolid in 33 (94%) cases. At 6 months of bedaquiline treatment, culture conversion was achieved in 28 of 29 (97%) cases with culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis at bedaquiline initiation. Median time to culture conversion was 85 days (range, 8-235 days). Variables independently associated with culture conversion were treatment with a Fq (P = .01), absence of lung cavities (P < .001), and absence of hepatitis C virus infection (P = .001). A total of 7 patients (20%) experienced a ≥60-ms increase in QT interval, leading to bedaquiline discontinuation in 2 (6%) cases. Severe liver enzyme elevation occurred in 2 patients (6%). During the study period, 1 death (3%) occurred and was reported as unrelated to tuberculosis or antituberculosis treatment.
The use of bedaquiline combined with other active drugs has the potential to achieve high culture conversion rates in complicated MDR and XDR tuberculosis cases, with a reassuring safety profile at 6 months of treatment.