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Basal forebrain cholinergic modulation of sleep transitions.
Sleep 2014; 37(12):1941-51S

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

The basal forebrain cholinergic system is involved in cognitive processes that require an attentive state, an increased level of arousal, and/ or cortical activation associated with low amplitude fast EEG activity. The activity of most neurons in the basal forebrain cholinergic space is tightly correlated with the cortical EEG and the activity state. While most cholinergic neurons fire maximally during waking and REM sleep, the activity of other types of basal forebrain neurons vastly differs across different arousal and sleep states. Numerous studies have suggested a role for the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in eliciting cortical activation and arousal. However, the intricate local connectivity within the region requires the use of cell-specific manipulation methods to demonstrate such a causal relationship.

DESIGN AND MEASUREMENTS

Here we have combined optogenetics with surface EEG recordings in freely moving mice in order to investigate the effects of acute cholinergic activation on the dynamics of sleep-to-wake transitions. We recorded from naturally sleeping animals and analyzed transitions from NREM sleep to REM sleep and/ or wakefulness in response to photo-stimulation of cholinergic neurons in substantia innominata.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS

Our results show that optogenetic activation of BF cholinergic neurons during NREM sleep is sufficient to elicit cortical activation and facilitate state transitions, particularly transitions to wakefulness and arousal, at a time scale similar to the activation induced by other subcortical systems. Our results provide in vivo cell-specific demonstration for the role of basal forebrain cholinergic system in induction of wakefulness and arousal.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biology Stanford University, Stanford, CA.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25325504

Citation

Irmak, Simal Ozen, and Luis de Lecea. "Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Modulation of Sleep Transitions." Sleep, vol. 37, no. 12, 2014, pp. 1941-51.
Irmak SO, de Lecea L. Basal forebrain cholinergic modulation of sleep transitions. Sleep. 2014;37(12):1941-51.
Irmak, S. O., & de Lecea, L. (2014). Basal forebrain cholinergic modulation of sleep transitions. Sleep, 37(12), pp. 1941-51. doi:10.5665/sleep.4246.
Irmak SO, de Lecea L. Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Modulation of Sleep Transitions. Sleep. 2014 Dec 1;37(12):1941-51. PubMed PMID: 25325504.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Basal forebrain cholinergic modulation of sleep transitions. AU - Irmak,Simal Ozen, AU - de Lecea,Luis, Y1 - 2014/12/01/ PY - 2013/11/11/received PY - 2014/05/17/accepted PY - 2014/10/18/entrez PY - 2014/10/18/pubmed PY - 2015/8/8/medline KW - REM sleep KW - choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) KW - electroencephalogram (EEG) KW - horizontal limb of diagonal band (HLDB) KW - nucleus basalis (NB) KW - optogenetics KW - recordings from freely moving animals KW - slow wave sleep KW - substantia innominata (SI) KW - transgenic mice SP - 1941 EP - 51 JF - Sleep JO - Sleep VL - 37 IS - 12 N2 - OBJECTIVES: The basal forebrain cholinergic system is involved in cognitive processes that require an attentive state, an increased level of arousal, and/ or cortical activation associated with low amplitude fast EEG activity. The activity of most neurons in the basal forebrain cholinergic space is tightly correlated with the cortical EEG and the activity state. While most cholinergic neurons fire maximally during waking and REM sleep, the activity of other types of basal forebrain neurons vastly differs across different arousal and sleep states. Numerous studies have suggested a role for the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in eliciting cortical activation and arousal. However, the intricate local connectivity within the region requires the use of cell-specific manipulation methods to demonstrate such a causal relationship. DESIGN AND MEASUREMENTS: Here we have combined optogenetics with surface EEG recordings in freely moving mice in order to investigate the effects of acute cholinergic activation on the dynamics of sleep-to-wake transitions. We recorded from naturally sleeping animals and analyzed transitions from NREM sleep to REM sleep and/ or wakefulness in response to photo-stimulation of cholinergic neurons in substantia innominata. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that optogenetic activation of BF cholinergic neurons during NREM sleep is sufficient to elicit cortical activation and facilitate state transitions, particularly transitions to wakefulness and arousal, at a time scale similar to the activation induced by other subcortical systems. Our results provide in vivo cell-specific demonstration for the role of basal forebrain cholinergic system in induction of wakefulness and arousal. SN - 1550-9109 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25325504/Basal_forebrain_cholinergic_modulation_of_sleep_transitions_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/sleep/article-lookup/doi/10.5665/sleep.4246 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -