Biomarker responses in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) to soils contaminated with di-n-butyl phthalates.Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2015 Mar; 22(6):4660-9.ES
Di-n-butyl phthalates (DBP) are recognized as ubiquitous contaminants in soil and adversely impact the health of organisms. Changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and levels of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were used as biomarkers to evaluate the impact of DBP on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) after exposure to DBP for 28 days. DBP was added to artificial soil in the amounts of 0, 5, 10, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1) of soil. Earthworm tissues exposed to each treatment were collected on the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th day of the treatment. We found that superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels were significantly inhibited in the 100 mg kg(-1) treatment group on day 28. After 21 days of treatment, GST activity in 10-50 mg kg(-1) treatment groups was markedly stimulated compared to the control group. MDA content in treatment groups was higher than in the control group throughout the exposure time, suggesting that DBP may lead to lipid peroxidation (LPO) in cells. GSH content increased in the treatment group that received 50 mg kg(-1) DBP from 7 days of exposure to 28 days. These results suggest that DBP induces serious oxidative damage on earthworms and induce the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in earthworms. However, DBP concentration in current agricultural soil in China will not constitute any threat to the earthworm or other animals in the soil.