Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Upregulation of GPR109A in Parkinson's disease.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(10):e109818.Plos

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Anecdotal animal and human studies have implicated the symptomatic and neuroprotective roles of niacin in Parkinson's disease (PD). Niacin has a high affinity for GPR109A, an anti-inflammatory receptor. Niacin is also thought to be involved in the regulation of circadian rhythm. Here we evaluated the relationships among the receptor, niacin levels and EEG night-sleep in individuals with PD.

METHODS AND FINDINGS

GPR109A expression (blood and brain), niacin index (NAD-NADP ratio) and cytokine markers (blood) were analyzed. Measures of night-sleep function (EEG) and perceived sleep quality (questionnaire) were assessed. We observed significant up-regulation of GPR109A expression in the blood as well as in the substantia nigra (SN) in the PD group compared to age-matched controls. Confocal microscopy demonstrated co-localization of GPR109A staining with microglia in PD SN. Pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines did not show significant differences between the groups; however IL1-β, IL-4 and IL-7 showed an upward trend in PD. Time to sleep (sleep latency), EEG REM and sleep efficiency were different between PD and age-matched controls. Niacin levels were lower in PD and were associated with increased frequency of experiencing body pain and decreased duration of deep sleep.

CONCLUSIONS

The findings of associations among the GPR109A receptor, niacin levels and night-sleep function in individuals with PD are novel. Further studies are needed to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of action of niacin, GPR109A expression and their associations with night-sleep function. It would be also crucial to study GPR109A expression in neurons, astrocytes, and microglia in PD. A clinical trial to determine the symptomatic and/or neuroprotective effect of niacin supplementation is warranted.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Physical Therapy, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, Georgia, United States of America.Department of Physical Therapy, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, Georgia, United States of America.Department of Physical Therapy, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, Georgia, United States of America.Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology and Neurology, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, Georgia, United States of America.Department of Neurology, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, Georgia, United States of America.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25329911

Citation

Wakade, Chandramohan, et al. "Upregulation of GPR109A in Parkinson's Disease." PloS One, vol. 9, no. 10, 2014, pp. e109818.
Wakade C, Chong R, Bradley E, et al. Upregulation of GPR109A in Parkinson's disease. PLoS One. 2014;9(10):e109818.
Wakade, C., Chong, R., Bradley, E., Thomas, B., & Morgan, J. (2014). Upregulation of GPR109A in Parkinson's disease. PloS One, 9(10), e109818. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109818
Wakade C, et al. Upregulation of GPR109A in Parkinson's Disease. PLoS One. 2014;9(10):e109818. PubMed PMID: 25329911.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Upregulation of GPR109A in Parkinson's disease. AU - Wakade,Chandramohan, AU - Chong,Raymond, AU - Bradley,Eric, AU - Thomas,Bobby, AU - Morgan,John, Y1 - 2014/10/17/ PY - 2014/03/28/received PY - 2014/09/04/accepted PY - 2014/10/21/entrez PY - 2014/10/21/pubmed PY - 2015/7/29/medline SP - e109818 EP - e109818 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS One VL - 9 IS - 10 N2 - BACKGROUND: Anecdotal animal and human studies have implicated the symptomatic and neuroprotective roles of niacin in Parkinson's disease (PD). Niacin has a high affinity for GPR109A, an anti-inflammatory receptor. Niacin is also thought to be involved in the regulation of circadian rhythm. Here we evaluated the relationships among the receptor, niacin levels and EEG night-sleep in individuals with PD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: GPR109A expression (blood and brain), niacin index (NAD-NADP ratio) and cytokine markers (blood) were analyzed. Measures of night-sleep function (EEG) and perceived sleep quality (questionnaire) were assessed. We observed significant up-regulation of GPR109A expression in the blood as well as in the substantia nigra (SN) in the PD group compared to age-matched controls. Confocal microscopy demonstrated co-localization of GPR109A staining with microglia in PD SN. Pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines did not show significant differences between the groups; however IL1-β, IL-4 and IL-7 showed an upward trend in PD. Time to sleep (sleep latency), EEG REM and sleep efficiency were different between PD and age-matched controls. Niacin levels were lower in PD and were associated with increased frequency of experiencing body pain and decreased duration of deep sleep. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of associations among the GPR109A receptor, niacin levels and night-sleep function in individuals with PD are novel. Further studies are needed to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of action of niacin, GPR109A expression and their associations with night-sleep function. It would be also crucial to study GPR109A expression in neurons, astrocytes, and microglia in PD. A clinical trial to determine the symptomatic and/or neuroprotective effect of niacin supplementation is warranted. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25329911/Upregulation_of_GPR109A_in_Parkinson's_disease_ L2 - https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109818 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -