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Differential expression of endogenous plant cell wall degrading enzyme genes in the stick insect (Phasmatodea) midgut.
BMC Genomics 2014; 15:917BG

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Stick and leaf insects (Phasmatodea) are an exclusively leaf-feeding order of insects with no record of omnivory, unlike other "herbivorous" Polyneoptera. They represent an ideal system for investigating the adaptations necessary for obligate folivory, including plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs). However, their physiology and internal anatomy is poorly understood, with limited genomic resources available.

RESULTS

We de novo assembled transcriptomes for the anterior and posterior midguts of six diverse Phasmatodea species, with RNA-Seq on one exemplar species, Peruphasma schultei. The latter's assembly yielded >100,000 transcripts, with over 4000 transcripts uniquely or more highly expressed in specific midgut sections. Two to three dozen PCWDE encoding gene families, including cellulases and pectinases, were differentially expressed in the anterior midgut. These genes were also found in genomic DNA from phasmid brain tissue, suggesting endogenous production. Sequence alignments revealed catalytic sites on most PCWDE transcripts. While most phasmid PCWDE genes showed homology with those of other insects, the pectinases were homologous to bacterial genes.

CONCLUSIONS

We identified a large and diverse PCWDE repertoire endogenous to the phasmids. If these expressed genes are translated into active enzymes, then phasmids can theoretically break plant cell walls into their monomer components independently of microbial symbionts. The differential gene expression between the two midgut sections provides the first molecular hints as to their function in living phasmids. Our work expands the resources available for industrial applications of animal-derived PCWDEs, and facilitates evolutionary analysis of lower Polyneopteran digestive enzymes, including the pectinases whose origin in Phasmatodea may have been a horizontal transfer event from bacteria.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA. mshelomi@ice.mpg.de.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25331961

Citation

Shelomi, Matan, et al. "Differential Expression of Endogenous Plant Cell Wall Degrading Enzyme Genes in the Stick Insect (Phasmatodea) Midgut." BMC Genomics, vol. 15, 2014, p. 917.
Shelomi M, Jasper WC, Atallah J, et al. Differential expression of endogenous plant cell wall degrading enzyme genes in the stick insect (Phasmatodea) midgut. BMC Genomics. 2014;15:917.
Shelomi, M., Jasper, W. C., Atallah, J., Kimsey, L. S., & Johnson, B. R. (2014). Differential expression of endogenous plant cell wall degrading enzyme genes in the stick insect (Phasmatodea) midgut. BMC Genomics, 15, p. 917. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-917.
Shelomi M, et al. Differential Expression of Endogenous Plant Cell Wall Degrading Enzyme Genes in the Stick Insect (Phasmatodea) Midgut. BMC Genomics. 2014 Oct 21;15:917. PubMed PMID: 25331961.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Differential expression of endogenous plant cell wall degrading enzyme genes in the stick insect (Phasmatodea) midgut. AU - Shelomi,Matan, AU - Jasper,W Cameron, AU - Atallah,Joel, AU - Kimsey,Lynn S, AU - Johnson,Brian R, Y1 - 2014/10/21/ PY - 2014/08/08/received PY - 2014/10/01/accepted PY - 2014/10/22/entrez PY - 2014/10/22/pubmed PY - 2015/7/3/medline SP - 917 EP - 917 JF - BMC genomics JO - BMC Genomics VL - 15 N2 - BACKGROUND: Stick and leaf insects (Phasmatodea) are an exclusively leaf-feeding order of insects with no record of omnivory, unlike other "herbivorous" Polyneoptera. They represent an ideal system for investigating the adaptations necessary for obligate folivory, including plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs). However, their physiology and internal anatomy is poorly understood, with limited genomic resources available. RESULTS: We de novo assembled transcriptomes for the anterior and posterior midguts of six diverse Phasmatodea species, with RNA-Seq on one exemplar species, Peruphasma schultei. The latter's assembly yielded >100,000 transcripts, with over 4000 transcripts uniquely or more highly expressed in specific midgut sections. Two to three dozen PCWDE encoding gene families, including cellulases and pectinases, were differentially expressed in the anterior midgut. These genes were also found in genomic DNA from phasmid brain tissue, suggesting endogenous production. Sequence alignments revealed catalytic sites on most PCWDE transcripts. While most phasmid PCWDE genes showed homology with those of other insects, the pectinases were homologous to bacterial genes. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a large and diverse PCWDE repertoire endogenous to the phasmids. If these expressed genes are translated into active enzymes, then phasmids can theoretically break plant cell walls into their monomer components independently of microbial symbionts. The differential gene expression between the two midgut sections provides the first molecular hints as to their function in living phasmids. Our work expands the resources available for industrial applications of animal-derived PCWDEs, and facilitates evolutionary analysis of lower Polyneopteran digestive enzymes, including the pectinases whose origin in Phasmatodea may have been a horizontal transfer event from bacteria. SN - 1471-2164 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25331961/Differential_expression_of_endogenous_plant_cell_wall_degrading_enzyme_genes_in_the_stick_insect__Phasmatodea__midgut_ L2 - https://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2164-15-917 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -