Changes in adipose tissue depots and metabolic markers following a 1-year diet and exercise intervention in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes.Diabetes Care. 2014 Dec; 37(12):3325-32.DC
We aim to characterize the effects on total body fat and distribution of a 1-year intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes and to examine whether changes in adipose tissue (AT) depots were associated with changes in metabolic biomarkers.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Participants were 54 females and 38 males (age 57.8 ± 6.7 years [mean ± SD]; BMI 31.7 ± 3.5 kg/m(2)) enrolled in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial randomized to ILI or diabetes support and education (DSE) from whom baseline and 1-year MRI measures of total AT (TAT) and regional (arm, trunk, leg) AT, including subcutaneous AT (SAT), visceral AT (VAT), and intermuscular AT (IMAT), were acquired. We tested whether mean changes in ILI and DSE were equal and, within groups, whether changes were different from zero. Regression models tested whether changes in AT compartments were associated with metabolic variable changes.
Body weight changed -0.52 ± 3.62 kg (P = 0.31) in DSE and -7.24 ± 5.40 kg (P < 0.0001) in ILI. Mean ILI changes were different from DSE (P < 0.001 for TAT, SAT, and IMAT and P < 0.01 for VAT in females). Within ILI, SAT and VAT decreased in males and females (P < 0.0001), but IMAT was unchanged (0.00 ± 0.54 kg; P = 0.99). In DSE, SAT and VAT did not change, but IMAT increased by 0.46 ± 0.55 kg (P < 0.001). Controlling for weight loss, reduction of specific AT depots was associated with improvement in metabolic biomarkers.
Weight loss of 7-10% from an ILI over 1 year reduced SAT and VAT and prevented an increase in IMAT. Reductions in AT depots were associated with improvements in biomarkers.