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Secondhand smoke emission levels in waterpipe cafes in Doha, Qatar.
Tob Control. 2015 Oct; 24(e3):e227-31.TC

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Exposure to the emissions of a tobacco waterpipe is associated with increased health risks among its users as well as those exposed to its secondhand smoke. Waterpipe use is an emerging concern to the tobacco control community, particularly among countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. In 2002, Qatar adopted legislation that prohibited cigarette smoking inside public venues, but exempted tobacco waterpipe smoking. To inform the development and enforcement of effective policy, the impact of cigarette and waterpipe use on indoor air quality was monitored in waterpipe cafes in Doha, Qatar.

METHODS

Particulate matter (PM2.5) levels were measured inside and outside of a sample of 40 waterpipe cafes and 16 smoke-free venues in Doha, Qatar between July and October 2012. In addition, the number of waterpipes being smoked and the number of cigarette smokers were counted within each venue. Non-paired and paired sample t tests were used to assess differences in mean PM2.5 measurements between venue type (waterpipe vs smoke-free) and environment (indoor vs outdoor).

RESULTS

The mean PM2.5 level inside waterpipe venues (476 μg/m(3)) was significantly higher than the mean PM2.5 level inside smoke-free venues (17 μg/m(3); p<0.001), and significantly higher than the mean PM2.5 level found immediately outside waterpipe venues (35 μg/m(3); p<0.001). In smoke-free venues, the outside mean PM2.5 level (30 μg/m(3)) did not differ significantly from the mean PM2.5 inside levels inside these venues (p=0.121).

CONCLUSIONS

Elevated levels of particulate pollution were found in waterpipe cafes in Doha, Qatar, potentially endangering the health of employees and patrons. To protect the public from the dangers of secondhand tobacco smoke, and to change social norms around tobacco use, smoke-free policies that apply to all forms of combusted tobacco products, including the waterpipe, are needed.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Tobacco Control Unit, Medicine Department, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.Tobacco Control Unit, Medicine Department, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.Department of Social & Behavioral Sciences, Center for Global Tobacco Control, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, USA.Department of Social & Behavioral Sciences, Center for Global Tobacco Control, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25352562

Citation

Al Mulla, Ahmad, et al. "Secondhand Smoke Emission Levels in Waterpipe Cafes in Doha, Qatar." Tobacco Control, vol. 24, no. e3, 2015, pp. e227-31.
Al Mulla A, Fanous N, Seidenberg AB, et al. Secondhand smoke emission levels in waterpipe cafes in Doha, Qatar. Tob Control. 2015;24(e3):e227-31.
Al Mulla, A., Fanous, N., Seidenberg, A. B., & Rees, V. W. (2015). Secondhand smoke emission levels in waterpipe cafes in Doha, Qatar. Tobacco Control, 24(e3), e227-31. https://doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-051717
Al Mulla A, et al. Secondhand Smoke Emission Levels in Waterpipe Cafes in Doha, Qatar. Tob Control. 2015;24(e3):e227-31. PubMed PMID: 25352562.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Secondhand smoke emission levels in waterpipe cafes in Doha, Qatar. AU - Al Mulla,Ahmad, AU - Fanous,Nadia, AU - Seidenberg,Andrew B, AU - Rees,Vaughan W, Y1 - 2014/10/28/ PY - 2014/04/04/received PY - 2014/10/08/accepted PY - 2014/10/30/entrez PY - 2014/10/30/pubmed PY - 2016/7/12/medline KW - Denormalization KW - Public policy KW - Secondhand smoke SP - e227 EP - 31 JF - Tobacco control JO - Tob Control VL - 24 IS - e3 N2 - BACKGROUND: Exposure to the emissions of a tobacco waterpipe is associated with increased health risks among its users as well as those exposed to its secondhand smoke. Waterpipe use is an emerging concern to the tobacco control community, particularly among countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. In 2002, Qatar adopted legislation that prohibited cigarette smoking inside public venues, but exempted tobacco waterpipe smoking. To inform the development and enforcement of effective policy, the impact of cigarette and waterpipe use on indoor air quality was monitored in waterpipe cafes in Doha, Qatar. METHODS: Particulate matter (PM2.5) levels were measured inside and outside of a sample of 40 waterpipe cafes and 16 smoke-free venues in Doha, Qatar between July and October 2012. In addition, the number of waterpipes being smoked and the number of cigarette smokers were counted within each venue. Non-paired and paired sample t tests were used to assess differences in mean PM2.5 measurements between venue type (waterpipe vs smoke-free) and environment (indoor vs outdoor). RESULTS: The mean PM2.5 level inside waterpipe venues (476 μg/m(3)) was significantly higher than the mean PM2.5 level inside smoke-free venues (17 μg/m(3); p<0.001), and significantly higher than the mean PM2.5 level found immediately outside waterpipe venues (35 μg/m(3); p<0.001). In smoke-free venues, the outside mean PM2.5 level (30 μg/m(3)) did not differ significantly from the mean PM2.5 inside levels inside these venues (p=0.121). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated levels of particulate pollution were found in waterpipe cafes in Doha, Qatar, potentially endangering the health of employees and patrons. To protect the public from the dangers of secondhand tobacco smoke, and to change social norms around tobacco use, smoke-free policies that apply to all forms of combusted tobacco products, including the waterpipe, are needed. SN - 1468-3318 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25352562/Secondhand_smoke_emission_levels_in_waterpipe_cafes_in_Doha_Qatar_ L2 - https://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/lookup/pmidlookup?view=long&amp;pmid=25352562 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -