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The reef-building coral Siderastrea siderea exhibits parabolic responses to ocean acidification and warming.
Proc Biol Sci. 2014 Dec 22; 281(1797)PB

Abstract

Anthropogenic increases in atmospheric CO2 over this century are predicted to cause global average surface ocean pH to decline by 0.1-0.3 pH units and sea surface temperature to increase by 1-4°C. We conducted controlled laboratory experiments to investigate the impacts of CO2-induced ocean acidification (pCO2 = 324, 477, 604, 2553 µatm) and warming (25, 28, 32°C) on the calcification rate of the zooxanthellate scleractinian coral Siderastrea siderea, a widespread, abundant and keystone reef-builder in the Caribbean Sea. We show that both acidification and warming cause a parabolic response in the calcification rate within this coral species. Moderate increases in pCO2 and warming, relative to near-present-day values, enhanced coral calcification, with calcification rates declining under the highest pCO2 and thermal conditions. Equivalent responses to acidification and warming were exhibited by colonies across reef zones and the parabolic nature of the corals' response to these stressors was evident across all three of the experiment's 30-day observational intervals. Furthermore, the warming projected by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change for the end of the twenty-first century caused a fivefold decrease in the rate of coral calcification, while the acidification projected for the same interval had no statistically significant impact on the calcification rate-suggesting that ocean warming poses a more immediate threat than acidification for this important coral species.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Marine Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3300, USA karl_castillo@unc.edu.Department of Marine Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3300, USA Department of Marine and Environmental Sciences, Marine Science Center, Northeastern University, Nahant, MA 01908, USA.Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 29599-3280, USA.Department of Marine Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3300, USA Department of Marine and Environmental Sciences, Marine Science Center, Northeastern University, Nahant, MA 01908, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25377455

Citation

Castillo, Karl D., et al. "The Reef-building Coral Siderastrea Siderea Exhibits Parabolic Responses to Ocean Acidification and Warming." Proceedings. Biological Sciences, vol. 281, no. 1797, 2014.
Castillo KD, Ries JB, Bruno JF, et al. The reef-building coral Siderastrea siderea exhibits parabolic responses to ocean acidification and warming. Proc Biol Sci. 2014;281(1797).
Castillo, K. D., Ries, J. B., Bruno, J. F., & Westfield, I. T. (2014). The reef-building coral Siderastrea siderea exhibits parabolic responses to ocean acidification and warming. Proceedings. Biological Sciences, 281(1797). https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2014.1856
Castillo KD, et al. The Reef-building Coral Siderastrea Siderea Exhibits Parabolic Responses to Ocean Acidification and Warming. Proc Biol Sci. 2014 Dec 22;281(1797) PubMed PMID: 25377455.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The reef-building coral Siderastrea siderea exhibits parabolic responses to ocean acidification and warming. AU - Castillo,Karl D, AU - Ries,Justin B, AU - Bruno,John F, AU - Westfield,Isaac T, PY - 2014/11/8/entrez PY - 2014/11/8/pubmed PY - 2015/7/15/medline KW - Caribbean KW - Siderastrea siderea KW - calcification KW - ocean warming, ocean acidification KW - tropical scleractinian coral JF - Proceedings. Biological sciences JO - Proc. Biol. Sci. VL - 281 IS - 1797 N2 - Anthropogenic increases in atmospheric CO2 over this century are predicted to cause global average surface ocean pH to decline by 0.1-0.3 pH units and sea surface temperature to increase by 1-4°C. We conducted controlled laboratory experiments to investigate the impacts of CO2-induced ocean acidification (pCO2 = 324, 477, 604, 2553 µatm) and warming (25, 28, 32°C) on the calcification rate of the zooxanthellate scleractinian coral Siderastrea siderea, a widespread, abundant and keystone reef-builder in the Caribbean Sea. We show that both acidification and warming cause a parabolic response in the calcification rate within this coral species. Moderate increases in pCO2 and warming, relative to near-present-day values, enhanced coral calcification, with calcification rates declining under the highest pCO2 and thermal conditions. Equivalent responses to acidification and warming were exhibited by colonies across reef zones and the parabolic nature of the corals' response to these stressors was evident across all three of the experiment's 30-day observational intervals. Furthermore, the warming projected by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change for the end of the twenty-first century caused a fivefold decrease in the rate of coral calcification, while the acidification projected for the same interval had no statistically significant impact on the calcification rate-suggesting that ocean warming poses a more immediate threat than acidification for this important coral species. SN - 1471-2954 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25377455/The_reef_building_coral_Siderastrea_siderea_exhibits_parabolic_responses_to_ocean_acidification_and_warming_ L2 - https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/full/10.1098/rspb.2014.1856?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -