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Cocoa consumption dose-dependently improves flow-mediated dilation and arterial stiffness decreasing blood pressure in healthy individuals.
J Hypertens 2015; 33(2):294-303JH

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Cocoa flavonoids exert beneficial vascular effects and reduce the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, the involved mechanisms have not been clarified and no study has yet focused on the dose-response effects.

OBJECTIVES

We aimed to investigate the effects of different doses of cocoa flavonoids on flow-mediated dilation (FMD), endothelin-1 (ET-1), pulse wave velocity (PWV), and SBP and DBP.

DESIGN

According to a randomized, double-blind, controlled, cross-over design, 20 healthy volunteers (1.5% improvement in FMD in 20 individuals: 0.99 at alpha = 0.05) were assigned to receive either five treatments with daily intake of 10 g cocoa (0, 80, 200, 500 and 800 mg cocoa flavonoids/day) in five periods lasting 1 week each.

RESULTS

Cocoa dose-dependently increased FMD from 6.2% (control) to 7.3, 7.6, 8.1 and 8.2% after the different flavonoid doses, respectively (P < 0.0001). Compared with the control, even 80 mg cocoa flavonoids per day increased FMD (P < 0.0001). Cocoa dose-dependently decreased PWV (P < 0.0001). Cocoa intake decreased office blood pressure (BP) (SBP: -4.8 ± 1.03 mmHg, P < 0.0001; DBP: -3.03 ± 1.07 mmHg, P = 0.0011). With respect to control, cocoa ingestion decreased 24-h (P = 0.05) and daytime (P = 0.038) SBP, and 24-h (P = 0.0064), daytime (P = 0.0088) and night-time (P = 0.0352) pulse pressure. Compared with the control, cocoa dose-dependently decreased ET-1 levels [from 17.1 (control) to 15.2, 14.5, 14.2 and 14.1 pg/ml, after the different flavonoid doses, respectively (P for treatment <0.05)]. Compared with the control, significant changes were observed for all doses of flavonoids (ET-1; P < 0.05).

CONCLUSION

Our study showed for the first time that cocoa dose-dependently improved FMD and decreased PWV and ET-1 also by ameliorating office and monitored BP. Our findings are clinically relevant, suggesting cocoa, with very low calorie intake, might be reasonably incorporated into a dietary approach, representing a consistent tool in cardiovascular prevention.

Authors+Show Affiliations

aDepartment of Life, Health and Environmental Science, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy bBarry Callebaut, Lebbeke-Wieze, Belgium.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25380152

Citation

Grassi, Davide, et al. "Cocoa Consumption Dose-dependently Improves Flow-mediated Dilation and Arterial Stiffness Decreasing Blood Pressure in Healthy Individuals." Journal of Hypertension, vol. 33, no. 2, 2015, pp. 294-303.
Grassi D, Desideri G, Necozione S, et al. Cocoa consumption dose-dependently improves flow-mediated dilation and arterial stiffness decreasing blood pressure in healthy individuals. J Hypertens. 2015;33(2):294-303.
Grassi, D., Desideri, G., Necozione, S., di Giosia, P., Barnabei, R., Allegaert, L., ... Ferri, C. (2015). Cocoa consumption dose-dependently improves flow-mediated dilation and arterial stiffness decreasing blood pressure in healthy individuals. Journal of Hypertension, 33(2), pp. 294-303. doi:10.1097/HJH.0000000000000412.
Grassi D, et al. Cocoa Consumption Dose-dependently Improves Flow-mediated Dilation and Arterial Stiffness Decreasing Blood Pressure in Healthy Individuals. J Hypertens. 2015;33(2):294-303. PubMed PMID: 25380152.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Cocoa consumption dose-dependently improves flow-mediated dilation and arterial stiffness decreasing blood pressure in healthy individuals. AU - Grassi,Davide, AU - Desideri,Giovambattista, AU - Necozione,Stefano, AU - di Giosia,Paolo, AU - Barnabei,Remo, AU - Allegaert,Leen, AU - Bernaert,Herwig, AU - Ferri,Claudio, PY - 2014/11/8/entrez PY - 2014/11/8/pubmed PY - 2016/4/2/medline SP - 294 EP - 303 JF - Journal of hypertension JO - J. Hypertens. VL - 33 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: Cocoa flavonoids exert beneficial vascular effects and reduce the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, the involved mechanisms have not been clarified and no study has yet focused on the dose-response effects. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the effects of different doses of cocoa flavonoids on flow-mediated dilation (FMD), endothelin-1 (ET-1), pulse wave velocity (PWV), and SBP and DBP. DESIGN: According to a randomized, double-blind, controlled, cross-over design, 20 healthy volunteers (1.5% improvement in FMD in 20 individuals: 0.99 at alpha = 0.05) were assigned to receive either five treatments with daily intake of 10 g cocoa (0, 80, 200, 500 and 800 mg cocoa flavonoids/day) in five periods lasting 1 week each. RESULTS: Cocoa dose-dependently increased FMD from 6.2% (control) to 7.3, 7.6, 8.1 and 8.2% after the different flavonoid doses, respectively (P < 0.0001). Compared with the control, even 80 mg cocoa flavonoids per day increased FMD (P < 0.0001). Cocoa dose-dependently decreased PWV (P < 0.0001). Cocoa intake decreased office blood pressure (BP) (SBP: -4.8 ± 1.03 mmHg, P < 0.0001; DBP: -3.03 ± 1.07 mmHg, P = 0.0011). With respect to control, cocoa ingestion decreased 24-h (P = 0.05) and daytime (P = 0.038) SBP, and 24-h (P = 0.0064), daytime (P = 0.0088) and night-time (P = 0.0352) pulse pressure. Compared with the control, cocoa dose-dependently decreased ET-1 levels [from 17.1 (control) to 15.2, 14.5, 14.2 and 14.1 pg/ml, after the different flavonoid doses, respectively (P for treatment <0.05)]. Compared with the control, significant changes were observed for all doses of flavonoids (ET-1; P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our study showed for the first time that cocoa dose-dependently improved FMD and decreased PWV and ET-1 also by ameliorating office and monitored BP. Our findings are clinically relevant, suggesting cocoa, with very low calorie intake, might be reasonably incorporated into a dietary approach, representing a consistent tool in cardiovascular prevention. SN - 1473-5598 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25380152/Cocoa_consumption_dose_dependently_improves_flow_mediated_dilation_and_arterial_stiffness_decreasing_blood_pressure_in_healthy_individuals_ L2 - http://Insights.ovid.com/pubmed?pmid=25380152 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -