Baroreflex activation therapy: a new treatment option for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2014 Dec; 12(12):1465-9.ER
Sympathovagal imbalance plays a major role in the progression of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Baroreflex activation therapy (BAT) by electrical stimulation of baroreceptors located at the carotid sinus can reduce sympathetic and increase parasympathetic tone. This review provides an overview on the concept of BAT in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and available preclinical and clinical data. Animal studies of BAT in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction have demonstrated a decline in plasma norepinephrine, an improved left ventricular ejection fraction, a reduced susceptibility to induced ventricular arrhythmias and a survival benefit. First clinical data from uncontrolled studies suggest a relevant improvement in muscle sympathetic nerve activity, ejection fraction, 6-min walk distance, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class and hospitalization rate. BAT appears to be safe in this severely ill patient population.