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Both released silver ions and particulate Ag contribute to the toxicity of AgNPs to earthworm Eisenia fetida.
Nanotoxicology. 2015; 9(6):792-801.N

Abstract

To disentangle the contribution of ionic and nanoparticulate Ag to the overall toxicity to the earthworm Eisenia fetida, a semi-permeable membrane strategy was used to separate Ag(+) released from silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in an aqueous exposure. Internal Ag fractionation, activities of antioxidant enzymes and metabolites in E. fetida were determined after 96 h of exposure to two sizes of polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated AgNPs. The response of the antioxidant system combined with the content of malondialdehyde indicated that the Ag(+) released from AgNPs induced significant oxidative stress to the earthworms. Ag accumulated from AgNPs was predominantly associated with the granules and cell membrane compartments, whereas dissolved Ag was localized in the cytosol-containing fraction. In both Ag(+) exposures, two intermediates in the Krebs cycle, succinate and fumarate, were significantly elevated and depleted, respectively. A similar alteration pattern was seen in groups exposed to both smaller AgNPs (S AgNP, 10 nm) and larger AgNP (L AgNP, 40 nm), indicating that these effects in E. fetida were induced by exposure to released Ag(+). In addition, unique metabolic responses including decreased malate and glucose levels in S AgNP-exposed earthworms could be associated with exposure to nanoparticulate silver. Increased leucine and arginine and decreased ATP and inosine levels were observed in L AgNP exposures only, which clearly demonstrated a size-specific effect of AgNPs. Collectively, this study provided strong evidence that nanosilver acts by a different mechanism than ionic silver to cause acute toxicity to E. fetida, but further verification under different environmental conditions is needed.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research (YIC), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) .No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25387252

Citation

Li, Lianzhen, et al. "Both Released Silver Ions and Particulate Ag Contribute to the Toxicity of AgNPs to Earthworm Eisenia Fetida." Nanotoxicology, vol. 9, no. 6, 2015, pp. 792-801.
Li L, Wu H, Peijnenburg WJ, et al. Both released silver ions and particulate Ag contribute to the toxicity of AgNPs to earthworm Eisenia fetida. Nanotoxicology. 2015;9(6):792-801.
Li, L., Wu, H., Peijnenburg, W. J., & van Gestel, C. A. (2015). Both released silver ions and particulate Ag contribute to the toxicity of AgNPs to earthworm Eisenia fetida. Nanotoxicology, 9(6), 792-801. https://doi.org/10.3109/17435390.2014.976851
Li L, et al. Both Released Silver Ions and Particulate Ag Contribute to the Toxicity of AgNPs to Earthworm Eisenia Fetida. Nanotoxicology. 2015;9(6):792-801. PubMed PMID: 25387252.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Both released silver ions and particulate Ag contribute to the toxicity of AgNPs to earthworm Eisenia fetida. AU - Li,Lianzhen, AU - Wu,Huifeng, AU - Peijnenburg,Willie J G M, AU - van Gestel,Cornelis A M, Y1 - 2014/11/11/ PY - 2014/11/12/entrez PY - 2014/11/12/pubmed PY - 2016/4/27/medline KW - Eisenia fetida KW - metabolomics KW - nanoparticles KW - nanotoxicology SP - 792 EP - 801 JF - Nanotoxicology JO - Nanotoxicology VL - 9 IS - 6 N2 - To disentangle the contribution of ionic and nanoparticulate Ag to the overall toxicity to the earthworm Eisenia fetida, a semi-permeable membrane strategy was used to separate Ag(+) released from silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in an aqueous exposure. Internal Ag fractionation, activities of antioxidant enzymes and metabolites in E. fetida were determined after 96 h of exposure to two sizes of polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated AgNPs. The response of the antioxidant system combined with the content of malondialdehyde indicated that the Ag(+) released from AgNPs induced significant oxidative stress to the earthworms. Ag accumulated from AgNPs was predominantly associated with the granules and cell membrane compartments, whereas dissolved Ag was localized in the cytosol-containing fraction. In both Ag(+) exposures, two intermediates in the Krebs cycle, succinate and fumarate, were significantly elevated and depleted, respectively. A similar alteration pattern was seen in groups exposed to both smaller AgNPs (S AgNP, 10 nm) and larger AgNP (L AgNP, 40 nm), indicating that these effects in E. fetida were induced by exposure to released Ag(+). In addition, unique metabolic responses including decreased malate and glucose levels in S AgNP-exposed earthworms could be associated with exposure to nanoparticulate silver. Increased leucine and arginine and decreased ATP and inosine levels were observed in L AgNP exposures only, which clearly demonstrated a size-specific effect of AgNPs. Collectively, this study provided strong evidence that nanosilver acts by a different mechanism than ionic silver to cause acute toxicity to E. fetida, but further verification under different environmental conditions is needed. SN - 1743-5404 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25387252/Both_released_silver_ions_and_particulate_Ag_contribute_to_the_toxicity_of_AgNPs_to_earthworm_Eisenia_fetida_ L2 - https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3109/17435390.2014.976851 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -