Effects of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on photosynthesis and growth of the aquatic plant Lemna gibba.Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2015 Apr; 68(3):510-20.AE
Toxicity of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) was investigated in Lemna gibba plants exposed for 7 days to Fe3O4 (SPION-1), Co0.2Zn0.8Fe2O4 (SPION-2), or Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 (SPION-3) at 0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200 or 400 µg mL(-1). At < 400 µg mL(-1) of SPION exposure, toxicity was indicated by decrease of chlorophyll content, deterioration of photosystem II (PSII) functions, strong production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and inhibition of growth rate based on fresh weight (52-59 %) or frond number (32-49 %). The performance index of PSII activity was the most sensitive biomarker of PSII functions and decreased by 83, 86, and 79 % for SPION-1, SPION-2, and SPION-3, respectively. According to the change of these biomarkers, the exposure of SPION suspensions to L. gibba caused several alterations to the entire plant cellular system, which may come from both the uptake of nanoparticles and metal ions in the soluble fraction. Our results, based on the change of several biomarkers, showed that these SPION have a complex toxic mode of action on the entire plant system and therefore affects its viability. Therefore, the plant model L. gibba was shown to be a sensitive bioindicator of SPION cellular toxicity and thus can be used in the development of a laboratory bioassay toxicity testing.