Cardiovascular disease incidence, mortality and case fatality related to diabetes and metabolic syndrome: A community-based prospective study (Ansung-Ansan cohort 2001-12).J Diabetes. 2015 Nov; 7(6):791-9.JD
We evaluated the separate and combined effect of metabolic syndrome (MS) and diabetes on incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), CVD mortality and case fatality risk (CFR).
8898 subjects were categorized into four groups on the basis of the presence of MS and diabetes (with MS, with diabetes, with both or without either). We compared the development of CVD events, mortality and CFR.
Over a mean follow-up of 8.0 years, 690 subjects developed CVD. There were 434 deaths, of which 101 were from CVD. The presence of diabetes alone, MS alone, or both was associated with an increased risk for incident CVD and CVD mortality. Compared with the MS only group, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for CVD events and CVD mortality in the diabetes only group was 1.07 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.77-1.48) and 2.02 (95% CI 0.99-1.72), respectively. Among individuals with diabetes, the presence of MS did not significantly increase CVD risk and CVD mortality. The adjusted odds ratio for CVD CFR, including adjustment for the presence of MS, in subjects with diabetes versus without diabetes was 2.11 (95% CI 1.34-3.31).
There was no difference in the risk of incident CVD between individuals with diabetes alone and MS alone, whereas CVD mortality was much higher in individuals with diabetes only. The presence of MS did not exhibit an additive effect on CVD risk and mortality in individuals with diabetes. Individuals with diabetes had a higher CVD case fatality regardless of the presence of MS.