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The double burden of undernutrition and excess body weight in Ecuador.
Am J Clin Nutr 2014; 100(6):1636S-43SAJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Ecuador's current nutrition policies have not taken adequate notice of the double burden of malnutrition and continue to focus on stunting and to a lesser extent on overweight, without addressing the simultaneous presence of undernutrition, micronutrient deficiencies, and overweight or obesity (OW/OB).

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this article was to describe the prevalence and distribution of undernutrition (stunting, anemia, and zinc deficiency), overweight, and obesity in Ecuador to explore the evolving double burden of malnutrition at the national, household, and individual levels and to discuss whether current public health policies are addressing the double burden.

DESIGN

Data from the 2012 Ecuadorian National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-ECU) was used to estimate the dual burden of malnutrition at the national, household, and individual levels in children <5 y old, school-aged children, and women of reproductive age.

RESULTS

In 13.1% of households, mothers with excess body weight coexist with a stunted child <5 y old. Moreover, among households with overweight or obese mothers, 12.6% have an anemic child and 14% have a zinc-deficient child. At the individual levels, the coexistence of OW/OB and stunting, anemia, or zinc deficiency was found in 2.8%, 0.7%, and 8.4% of school-aged children, respectively. In addition, 8.9% and 32.6% of women aged 12-49 y have excess body weight and anemia or zinc deficiency, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

This article shows the coexistence of high rates of undernutrition and OW/OB at the individual, household, and national levels in Ecuador. Although integrated approaches to address the emerging double burden are required, public health policies to date have not responded adequately.

Authors+Show Affiliations

From the Ministerio de Salud Pública del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador (WBF, KMS-J, MJR-L, and PB), and the Health and Nutrition Research Institute, University of San Francisco de Quito, Quito, Ecuador (WFW).From the Ministerio de Salud Pública del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador (WBF, KMS-J, MJR-L, and PB), and the Health and Nutrition Research Institute, University of San Francisco de Quito, Quito, Ecuador (WFW).From the Ministerio de Salud Pública del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador (WBF, KMS-J, MJR-L, and PB), and the Health and Nutrition Research Institute, University of San Francisco de Quito, Quito, Ecuador (WFW).From the Ministerio de Salud Pública del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador (WBF, KMS-J, MJR-L, and PB), and the Health and Nutrition Research Institute, University of San Francisco de Quito, Quito, Ecuador (WFW).From the Ministerio de Salud Pública del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador (WBF, KMS-J, MJR-L, and PB), and the Health and Nutrition Research Institute, University of San Francisco de Quito, Quito, Ecuador (WFW).

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25411306

Citation

Freire, Wilma B., et al. "The Double Burden of Undernutrition and Excess Body Weight in Ecuador." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 100, no. 6, 2014, 1636S-43S.
Freire WB, Silva-Jaramillo KM, Ramírez-Luzuriaga MJ, et al. The double burden of undernutrition and excess body weight in Ecuador. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;100(6):1636S-43S.
Freire, W. B., Silva-Jaramillo, K. M., Ramírez-Luzuriaga, M. J., Belmont, P., & Waters, W. F. (2014). The double burden of undernutrition and excess body weight in Ecuador. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 100(6), 1636S-43S. doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.083766.
Freire WB, et al. The Double Burden of Undernutrition and Excess Body Weight in Ecuador. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;100(6):1636S-43S. PubMed PMID: 25411306.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The double burden of undernutrition and excess body weight in Ecuador. AU - Freire,Wilma B, AU - Silva-Jaramillo,Katherine M, AU - Ramírez-Luzuriaga,María J, AU - Belmont,Philippe, AU - Waters,William F, Y1 - 2014/10/29/ PY - 2014/11/21/entrez PY - 2014/11/21/pubmed PY - 2015/2/24/medline KW - Ecuador KW - double burden KW - epidemiological transition KW - malnutrition KW - obesity KW - overweight KW - undernutrition SP - 1636S EP - 43S JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 100 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: Ecuador's current nutrition policies have not taken adequate notice of the double burden of malnutrition and continue to focus on stunting and to a lesser extent on overweight, without addressing the simultaneous presence of undernutrition, micronutrient deficiencies, and overweight or obesity (OW/OB). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article was to describe the prevalence and distribution of undernutrition (stunting, anemia, and zinc deficiency), overweight, and obesity in Ecuador to explore the evolving double burden of malnutrition at the national, household, and individual levels and to discuss whether current public health policies are addressing the double burden. DESIGN: Data from the 2012 Ecuadorian National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-ECU) was used to estimate the dual burden of malnutrition at the national, household, and individual levels in children <5 y old, school-aged children, and women of reproductive age. RESULTS: In 13.1% of households, mothers with excess body weight coexist with a stunted child <5 y old. Moreover, among households with overweight or obese mothers, 12.6% have an anemic child and 14% have a zinc-deficient child. At the individual levels, the coexistence of OW/OB and stunting, anemia, or zinc deficiency was found in 2.8%, 0.7%, and 8.4% of school-aged children, respectively. In addition, 8.9% and 32.6% of women aged 12-49 y have excess body weight and anemia or zinc deficiency, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This article shows the coexistence of high rates of undernutrition and OW/OB at the individual, household, and national levels in Ecuador. Although integrated approaches to address the emerging double burden are required, public health policies to date have not responded adequately. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25411306/The_double_burden_of_undernutrition_and_excess_body_weight_in_Ecuador_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.114.083766 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -