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Role of microbial and chemical composition in toxicological properties of indoor and outdoor air particulate matter.
Part Fibre Toxicol. 2014 Nov 25; 11:60.PF

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Ambient air particulate matter (PM) is increasingly considered to be a causal factor evoking severe adverse health effects. People spend the majority of their time indoors, which should be taken into account especially in future risk assessments, when the role of outdoor air particles transported into indoor air is considered. Therefore, there is an urgent need for characterization of possible sources seasonally for harmful health outcomes both indoors and outdoors.

METHODS

In this study, we collected size-segregated (PM(10-2.5), PM(2.5-0.2)) particulate samples with a high volume cascade impactor (HVCI) simultaneously both indoors and outdoors of a new single family detached house at four different seasons. The chemical composition of the samples was analyzed as was the presence of microbes. Mouse macrophages were exposed to PM samples for 24 hours. Thereafter, the levels of the proinflammatory cytokines, NO-production, cytotoxicity and changes in the cell cycle were investigated. The putative sources of the most toxic groups of constituents were resolved by using the principal component analysis (PCA) and pairwise dependencies of the variables were detected with Spearman correlation.

RESULTS

Source-related toxicological responses clearly varied according to season. The role of outdoor sources in indoor air quality was significant only in the warm seasons and the significance of outdoor microbes was also larger in the indoor air. During wintertime, the role of indoor sources of the particles was more significant, as was also the case for microbes. With respect to the outdoor sources, soil-derived particles during a road dust episode and local wood combustion in wintertime were the most important factors inducing toxicological responses.

CONCLUSIONS

Even though there were clear seasonal differences in the abilities of indoor and outdoor air to induce inflammatory and cytotoxic responses, there were relatively small differences in the chemical composition of the particles responsible of those effects. Outdoor sources have only a limited effect on indoor air quality in a newly built house with a modern ventilation system at least in a low air pollution environment. The most important sources for adverse health related toxicological effects were related to soil-derived constituents, local combustion emissions and microbes.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211, Kuopio, Finland. mikko.happo@uef.fi.Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211, Kuopio, Finland. olli.sippula@uef.fi.Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211, Kuopio, Finland. pasi.jalava@uef.fi.Mikrobioni Oy, Microkatu 1, P.O. Box 1188, FI-70211, Kuopio, Finland. helena.rintala@mikrobioni.fi.Finnish Meteorological Institute, Atmospheric Research Centre of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211, Kuopio, Finland. ari.leskinen@fmi.fi.Finnish Meteorological Institute, Atmospheric Research Centre of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211, Kuopio, Finland. mika.komppula@fmi.fi.Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211, Kuopio, Finland. kari.kuuspalo@uef.fi.Department of Applied Physics, Kuopio, University of Eastern Finland, P.O.Box 1627, FI-70211, Kuopio, Finland. santtu.mikkonen@uef.fi.Finnish Meteorological Institute, Atmospheric Research Centre of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211, Kuopio, Finland. kari.lehtinen@uef.fi. Department of Applied Physics, Kuopio, University of Eastern Finland, P.O.Box 1627, FI-70211, Kuopio, Finland. kari.lehtinen@uef.fi.Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211, Kuopio, Finland. jorma.jokiniemi@uef.fi. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Fine Particles, Espoo, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044, Espoo, Finland. jorma.jokiniemi@uef.fi.Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211, Kuopio, Finland. maija-riitta.hirvonen@uef.fi. Department of Environmental Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701, Kuopio, Finland. maija-riitta.hirvonen@uef.fi.

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25420696

Citation

Happo, Mikko S., et al. "Role of Microbial and Chemical Composition in Toxicological Properties of Indoor and Outdoor Air Particulate Matter." Particle and Fibre Toxicology, vol. 11, 2014, p. 60.
Happo MS, Sippula O, Jalava PI, et al. Role of microbial and chemical composition in toxicological properties of indoor and outdoor air particulate matter. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2014;11:60.
Happo, M. S., Sippula, O., Jalava, P. I., Rintala, H., Leskinen, A., Komppula, M., Kuuspalo, K., Mikkonen, S., Lehtinen, K., Jokiniemi, J., & Hirvonen, M. R. (2014). Role of microbial and chemical composition in toxicological properties of indoor and outdoor air particulate matter. Particle and Fibre Toxicology, 11, 60. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12989-014-0060-6
Happo MS, et al. Role of Microbial and Chemical Composition in Toxicological Properties of Indoor and Outdoor Air Particulate Matter. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2014 Nov 25;11:60. PubMed PMID: 25420696.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Role of microbial and chemical composition in toxicological properties of indoor and outdoor air particulate matter. AU - Happo,Mikko S, AU - Sippula,Olli, AU - Jalava,Pasi I, AU - Rintala,Helena, AU - Leskinen,Ari, AU - Komppula,Mika, AU - Kuuspalo,Kari, AU - Mikkonen,Santtu, AU - Lehtinen,Kari, AU - Jokiniemi,Jorma, AU - Hirvonen,Maija-Riitta, Y1 - 2014/11/25/ PY - 2014/06/06/received PY - 2014/10/28/accepted PY - 2014/11/26/entrez PY - 2014/11/26/pubmed PY - 2015/10/16/medline SP - 60 EP - 60 JF - Particle and fibre toxicology JO - Part Fibre Toxicol VL - 11 N2 - BACKGROUND: Ambient air particulate matter (PM) is increasingly considered to be a causal factor evoking severe adverse health effects. People spend the majority of their time indoors, which should be taken into account especially in future risk assessments, when the role of outdoor air particles transported into indoor air is considered. Therefore, there is an urgent need for characterization of possible sources seasonally for harmful health outcomes both indoors and outdoors. METHODS: In this study, we collected size-segregated (PM(10-2.5), PM(2.5-0.2)) particulate samples with a high volume cascade impactor (HVCI) simultaneously both indoors and outdoors of a new single family detached house at four different seasons. The chemical composition of the samples was analyzed as was the presence of microbes. Mouse macrophages were exposed to PM samples for 24 hours. Thereafter, the levels of the proinflammatory cytokines, NO-production, cytotoxicity and changes in the cell cycle were investigated. The putative sources of the most toxic groups of constituents were resolved by using the principal component analysis (PCA) and pairwise dependencies of the variables were detected with Spearman correlation. RESULTS: Source-related toxicological responses clearly varied according to season. The role of outdoor sources in indoor air quality was significant only in the warm seasons and the significance of outdoor microbes was also larger in the indoor air. During wintertime, the role of indoor sources of the particles was more significant, as was also the case for microbes. With respect to the outdoor sources, soil-derived particles during a road dust episode and local wood combustion in wintertime were the most important factors inducing toxicological responses. CONCLUSIONS: Even though there were clear seasonal differences in the abilities of indoor and outdoor air to induce inflammatory and cytotoxic responses, there were relatively small differences in the chemical composition of the particles responsible of those effects. Outdoor sources have only a limited effect on indoor air quality in a newly built house with a modern ventilation system at least in a low air pollution environment. The most important sources for adverse health related toxicological effects were related to soil-derived constituents, local combustion emissions and microbes. SN - 1743-8977 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25420696/Role_of_microbial_and_chemical_composition_in_toxicological_properties_of_indoor_and_outdoor_air_particulate_matter_ L2 - https://particleandfibretoxicology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12989-014-0060-6 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -