Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy types IV and V in Japan.Pediatr Int 2015; 57(1):30-6PI
Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN) is a group of genetic disorders involving varying sensory and autonomic dysfunction. HSAN types IV and V are characterized by congenital generalized loss of pain and thermal sensation. HSAN type IV is additionally accompanied by decreased sweating and intellectual disability. From 2010 to 2013, we (members of the Japanese Research Group on Congenital Insensitivity to Pain) carried out research on HSAN types IV and V. Research by this group included epidemiological data, examination of clinical findings, solutions of disease etiology, investigation of complications and development of their management. Complications were categorized into musculoskeletal complications, oral/dental complications, dermal complications, ocular complications, complications resulting from impaired thermal control, anesthetic considerations, other complications possibly related to autonomic dysfunction, and abnormal mental development and behavior. Treatment and care for patients with HSAN types IV and V require a wide range of knowledge and experience, and a multidisciplinary team approach. Therefore, we produced the "Guideline of Total Management and Care for Congenital Insensitivity to Pain (Ver.1)" in 2012, to provide information for medical specialists based on our knowledge and experience. This guideline includes medical issues, as well as descriptions of social participation and welfare. This review outlines the situation of HSAN types IV and V in Japan, and the recommendations of treatment and care for patients, mostly based on research conducted by the Japanese Research Group.