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Some Strychnos spinosa (Loganiaceae) leaf extracts and fractions have good antimicrobial activities and low cytotoxicities.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014 Nov 27; 14:456.BC

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Strychnos spinosa Lam. is a deciduous tree used in traditional medicine to treat infectious diseases. This study is designed to determine the antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of extracts and fractions from leaves of S. spinosa.

METHODS

Extracts were obtained by maceration with acetone, methanol and dichloromethane/methanol (1/1) while fractions were prepared by liquid-liquid fractionation of the acetone extract. A broth serial microdilution method with tetrazolium violet as growth indicator was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against fungi, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The antioxidant activity was determined using free-radical-scavenging assays, and the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction assay was used to determine cytotoxicity.

RESULTS

Four extracts and five fractions had good to weak antimicrobial activity with MICs ranging from 0.04 to >1.25 mg/ml against both fungi and bacteria. The chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions had an MIC of 0.08 mg/ml against Aspergillus fumigatus. The n-butanol fraction had an MIC of 0.04 mg/ml against Cryptococcus neoformans. The hexane and chloroform fractions had an MIC of 0.08 mg/ml against Staphylococcus aureus. The antioxidant activities were much lower than that of the positive controls. Except for the alkaloid extract, all the extracts and fractions had free-radical-scavenging activity (IC50 ranging from 33.66 to 314.30 μg/ml). The cytotoxicity on Vero cells was reasonable to low with LC50 values ranging between 30.56 and 689.39 μg/ml.

CONCLUSION

The acetone extract and the chloroform fraction had the highest antibacterial activity. By solvent-solvent fractionation it was possible to increase the activity against A. fumigatus and to decrease the cytotoxicity leading to a potentially useful product to protect animals against aspergillosis. Our results therefore support the use of S. spinosa leaves in traditional medicine to treat infectious diseases.

Authors+Show Affiliations

No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availablePhytomedicine Programme, Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa. jpdzoyem@yahoo.fr.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25428165

Citation

Isa, Adamu Imam, et al. "Some Strychnos Spinosa (Loganiaceae) Leaf Extracts and Fractions Have Good Antimicrobial Activities and Low Cytotoxicities." BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 14, 2014, p. 456.
Isa AI, Awouafack MD, Dzoyem JP, et al. Some Strychnos spinosa (Loganiaceae) leaf extracts and fractions have good antimicrobial activities and low cytotoxicities. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014;14:456.
Isa, A. I., Awouafack, M. D., Dzoyem, J. P., Aliyu, M., Magaji, R. A., Ayo, J. O., & Eloff, J. N. (2014). Some Strychnos spinosa (Loganiaceae) leaf extracts and fractions have good antimicrobial activities and low cytotoxicities. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 14, 456. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-14-456
Isa AI, et al. Some Strychnos Spinosa (Loganiaceae) Leaf Extracts and Fractions Have Good Antimicrobial Activities and Low Cytotoxicities. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014 Nov 27;14:456. PubMed PMID: 25428165.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Some Strychnos spinosa (Loganiaceae) leaf extracts and fractions have good antimicrobial activities and low cytotoxicities. AU - Isa,Adamu Imam, AU - Awouafack,Maurice Ducret, AU - Dzoyem,Jean Paul, AU - Aliyu,Mohammed, AU - Magaji,Rabiu AbduSsalam, AU - Ayo,Joseph Olusegun, AU - Eloff,Jacobus Nicolaas, Y1 - 2014/11/27/ PY - 2014/09/03/received PY - 2014/11/21/accepted PY - 2014/11/28/entrez PY - 2014/11/28/pubmed PY - 2015/6/9/medline SP - 456 EP - 456 JF - BMC complementary and alternative medicine JO - BMC Complement Altern Med VL - 14 N2 - BACKGROUND: Strychnos spinosa Lam. is a deciduous tree used in traditional medicine to treat infectious diseases. This study is designed to determine the antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of extracts and fractions from leaves of S. spinosa. METHODS: Extracts were obtained by maceration with acetone, methanol and dichloromethane/methanol (1/1) while fractions were prepared by liquid-liquid fractionation of the acetone extract. A broth serial microdilution method with tetrazolium violet as growth indicator was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against fungi, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The antioxidant activity was determined using free-radical-scavenging assays, and the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction assay was used to determine cytotoxicity. RESULTS: Four extracts and five fractions had good to weak antimicrobial activity with MICs ranging from 0.04 to >1.25 mg/ml against both fungi and bacteria. The chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions had an MIC of 0.08 mg/ml against Aspergillus fumigatus. The n-butanol fraction had an MIC of 0.04 mg/ml against Cryptococcus neoformans. The hexane and chloroform fractions had an MIC of 0.08 mg/ml against Staphylococcus aureus. The antioxidant activities were much lower than that of the positive controls. Except for the alkaloid extract, all the extracts and fractions had free-radical-scavenging activity (IC50 ranging from 33.66 to 314.30 μg/ml). The cytotoxicity on Vero cells was reasonable to low with LC50 values ranging between 30.56 and 689.39 μg/ml. CONCLUSION: The acetone extract and the chloroform fraction had the highest antibacterial activity. By solvent-solvent fractionation it was possible to increase the activity against A. fumigatus and to decrease the cytotoxicity leading to a potentially useful product to protect animals against aspergillosis. Our results therefore support the use of S. spinosa leaves in traditional medicine to treat infectious diseases. SN - 1472-6882 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25428165/Some_Strychnos_spinosa__Loganiaceae__leaf_extracts_and_fractions_have_good_antimicrobial_activities_and_low_cytotoxicities_ L2 - https://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6882-14-456 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -