In vitro and in vivo protective effect of arginine against lipopolysaccharide induced inflammatory response in the intestine of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2015 Feb; 42(2):457-64.FS
The present study was designed to assess the possible protective effects of arginine (Arg) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammatory response in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) in vivo and in enterocytes in vitro. Firstly, inflammatory response was established by exposing enterocytes to different concentrations of LPS for 24 h. Secondly, the protective effects of Arg against subsequent LPS exposure were studied in enterocytes. Finally, we investigated whether dietary Arg supplementation could attenuate immune challenge induced by LPS in vivo. The result indicated that 10 mg/L LPS could induced inflammatory response in enterocytes. Cells exposed to LPS (10-30 mg/L) alone for 24 h resulted in a significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase release (LDH) (P < 0.05). The cell viability, protein content, alkaline phosphatase activity were decreased by LPS (P < 0.05). Moreover, LPS exposure significantly increased TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 mRNA expression in vitro (P < 0.05). However, pre-treatment with Arg remarkably prevented the increase of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 by inhibiting the excessive activation of TLR4-Myd88 signaling pathway through down-regulating TLR4, Myd88, NFκB p65, and MAPK p38 mRNA expression (P < 0.05). Interestingly, the experiment in vivo showed that Arg pre-supplementation could attenuate immune challenge induced by LPS via TLR4-Myd88 signaling pathway, and thus protect fish against LPS-induced inflammatory response. In conclusion, all of these results indicated pre-supplementation with Arg decreased LPS induced immune damage and regulated TLR4-Myd88 signaling pathway in juvenile Jian carp in vivo and in enterocytes in vitro.