Associations between urinary phenol and paraben concentrations and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation among pregnant women in Puerto Rico.Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2015 Mar; 218(2):212-9.IJ
Phenols and parabens are used in a multitude of consumer products resulting in ubiquitous human exposure. Animal and in vitro studies suggest that exposure to these compounds may be related to a number of adverse health outcomes, as well as potential mediators such as oxidative stress and inflammation. We examined urinary phenol (bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan (TCS), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), 2,4-dichlorophenol (24-DCP), 2,5-dichlorophenol (25-DCP)) and paraben (butyl paraben (B-PB), methyl paraben (M-PB), propyl paraben (P-PB)) concentrations measured three times during pregnancy in relation to markers of oxidative stress and inflammation among participants in the Puerto Rico Testsite for Exploring Contamination Threats (PROTECT) project. Serum markers of inflammation (c-reactive protein (CRP), IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)) were measured twice during pregnancy (n=105 subjects, 187 measurements) and urinary markers of oxidative stress (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (OHdG) and isoprostane) were measured three times during pregnancy (n=54 subjects, 146 measurements). We used linear mixed models to assess relationships between natural log-transformed exposure and outcome biomarkers while accounting for within individual correlation across study visits. After adjustment for urinary specific gravity, study visit, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, and maternal education, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in urinary BPA was associated with 21% higher OHdG (p=0.001) and 29% higher isoprostane (p=0.0002), indicating increased oxidative stress. The adjusted increase in isoprostane per IQR increase in marker of exposure was 17% for BP-3, 27% for B-PB, and 20% for P-PB (all p<0.05). An IQR increase in triclosan (TCS) was associated with 31% higher serum concentrations of IL-6 (p=0.007), a pro-inflammatory cytokine. In contrast, IQR increases in BP-3 and B-PB were significantly associated with 16% and 18% lower CRP, a measure of systemic inflammation. Our findings suggest that exposure to BPA, select parabens, and TCS during pregnancy may be related to oxidative stress and inflammation, potential mechanisms by which exposure to these compounds may influence birth outcomes and other adverse health effects, but additional research is needed.