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Hydration Status and Fluid Balance of Elite European Youth Soccer Players during Consecutive Training Sessions.
J Sports Sci Med 2014; 13(4):817-22JS

Abstract

The objective of the study was to investigate the hydration status and fluid balance of elite European youth soccer players during three consecutive training sessions. Fourteen males (age 16.9 ± 0.8 years, height 1.79 ± 0.06 m, body mass (BM) 70.6 ± 5.0 kg) had their hydration status assessed from first morning urine samples (baseline) and pre- and post-training using urine specific gravity (USG) measures, and their fluid balance calculated from pre- to post-training BM change, corrected for fluid intake and urine output. Most participants were hypohydrated upon waking (USG >1.020; 77% on days 1 and 3, and 62% on day 2). There was no significant difference between first morning and pre-training USG (p = 0.11) and no influence of training session (p = 0.34) or time (pre- vs. post-training; p = 0.16) on USG. Significant BM loss occurred in sessions 1-3 (0.69 ± 0.22, 0.42 ± 0.25, and 0.38 ± 0.30 kg respectively, p < 0.05). Mean fluid intake in sessions 1-3 was 425 ± 185, 355 ± 161, and 247 ± 157 ml, respectively (p < 0.05). Participants replaced on average 71.3 ± 64.1% (range 0-363.6%) of fluid losses across the three sessions. Body mass loss, fluid intake, and USG measures showed large inter-individual variation. Elite young European soccer players likely wake and present for training hypohydrated, when a USG threshold of 1.020 is applied. When training in a cool environment with ad libitum access to fluid, replacing ~71% of sweat losses results in minimal hypohydration (<1% BM). Consumption of fluid ad libitum throughout training appears to prevent excessive (≥2% BM) dehydration, as advised by current fluid intake guidelines. Current fluid intake guidelines appear applicable for elite European youth soccer players training in a cool environment. Key PointsThe paper demonstrates a notable inter-participant variation in first morning, pre- and post-training hydration status and fluid balance of elite young European soccer players.On average, elite young European soccer players are hypohydrated upon waking and remain hypohydrated before and after training.Elite young European soccer players display varied fluid intake volumes during training, but on average do not consume sufficient fluid to offset fluid losses.Consecutive training sessions do not significantly impair hydration status, suggesting that elite young European soccer players consume sufficient fluid between training to maintain a stable hydration status and prevent excessive (≥2% body mass) dehydrationCurrent fluid intake guidelines appear applicable to this population when training in a cool environment.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Abertay University, Division of Sport and Exercise Sciences , Dundee, Scotland.Heart of Midlothian Football Academy, Heriot Watt University , Edinburgh, Scotland.Heart of Midlothian Football Academy, Heriot Watt University , Edinburgh, Scotland.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25435774

Citation

Phillips, Saun M., et al. "Hydration Status and Fluid Balance of Elite European Youth Soccer Players During Consecutive Training Sessions." Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, vol. 13, no. 4, 2014, pp. 817-22.
Phillips SM, Sykes D, Gibson N. Hydration Status and Fluid Balance of Elite European Youth Soccer Players during Consecutive Training Sessions. J Sports Sci Med. 2014;13(4):817-22.
Phillips, S. M., Sykes, D., & Gibson, N. (2014). Hydration Status and Fluid Balance of Elite European Youth Soccer Players during Consecutive Training Sessions. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 13(4), pp. 817-22.
Phillips SM, Sykes D, Gibson N. Hydration Status and Fluid Balance of Elite European Youth Soccer Players During Consecutive Training Sessions. J Sports Sci Med. 2014;13(4):817-22. PubMed PMID: 25435774.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Hydration Status and Fluid Balance of Elite European Youth Soccer Players during Consecutive Training Sessions. AU - Phillips,Saun M, AU - Sykes,Dave, AU - Gibson,Neil, Y1 - 2014/12/01/ PY - 2014/04/03/received PY - 2014/08/01/accepted PY - 2014/12/2/entrez PY - 2014/12/2/pubmed PY - 2014/12/2/medline KW - Specific gravity KW - adolescent KW - exercise KW - urine SP - 817 EP - 22 JF - Journal of sports science & medicine JO - J Sports Sci Med VL - 13 IS - 4 N2 - The objective of the study was to investigate the hydration status and fluid balance of elite European youth soccer players during three consecutive training sessions. Fourteen males (age 16.9 ± 0.8 years, height 1.79 ± 0.06 m, body mass (BM) 70.6 ± 5.0 kg) had their hydration status assessed from first morning urine samples (baseline) and pre- and post-training using urine specific gravity (USG) measures, and their fluid balance calculated from pre- to post-training BM change, corrected for fluid intake and urine output. Most participants were hypohydrated upon waking (USG >1.020; 77% on days 1 and 3, and 62% on day 2). There was no significant difference between first morning and pre-training USG (p = 0.11) and no influence of training session (p = 0.34) or time (pre- vs. post-training; p = 0.16) on USG. Significant BM loss occurred in sessions 1-3 (0.69 ± 0.22, 0.42 ± 0.25, and 0.38 ± 0.30 kg respectively, p < 0.05). Mean fluid intake in sessions 1-3 was 425 ± 185, 355 ± 161, and 247 ± 157 ml, respectively (p < 0.05). Participants replaced on average 71.3 ± 64.1% (range 0-363.6%) of fluid losses across the three sessions. Body mass loss, fluid intake, and USG measures showed large inter-individual variation. Elite young European soccer players likely wake and present for training hypohydrated, when a USG threshold of 1.020 is applied. When training in a cool environment with ad libitum access to fluid, replacing ~71% of sweat losses results in minimal hypohydration (<1% BM). Consumption of fluid ad libitum throughout training appears to prevent excessive (≥2% BM) dehydration, as advised by current fluid intake guidelines. Current fluid intake guidelines appear applicable for elite European youth soccer players training in a cool environment. Key PointsThe paper demonstrates a notable inter-participant variation in first morning, pre- and post-training hydration status and fluid balance of elite young European soccer players.On average, elite young European soccer players are hypohydrated upon waking and remain hypohydrated before and after training.Elite young European soccer players display varied fluid intake volumes during training, but on average do not consume sufficient fluid to offset fluid losses.Consecutive training sessions do not significantly impair hydration status, suggesting that elite young European soccer players consume sufficient fluid between training to maintain a stable hydration status and prevent excessive (≥2% body mass) dehydrationCurrent fluid intake guidelines appear applicable to this population when training in a cool environment. SN - 1303-2968 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25435774/Hydration_Status_and_Fluid_Balance_of_Elite_European_Youth_Soccer_Players_during_Consecutive_Training_Sessions_ L2 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/25435774/ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -