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The delivery of organic contaminants to the Arctic food web: why sea ice matters.
Sci Total Environ. 2015 Feb 15; 506-507:444-52.ST

Abstract

For decades sea ice has been perceived as a physical barrier for the loading of contaminants to the Arctic Ocean. We show that sea ice, in fact, facilitates the delivery of organic contaminants to the Arctic marine food web through processes that: 1) are independent of contaminant physical-chemical properties (e.g. 2-3-fold increase in exposure to brine-associated biota), and 2) depend on physical-chemical properties and, therefore, differentiate between contaminants (e.g. atmospheric loading of contaminants to melt ponds over the summer, and their subsequent leakage to the ocean). We estimate the concentrations of legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and current-use pesticides (CUPs) in melt pond water in the Beaufort Sea, Canadian High Arctic, in 2008, at near-gas exchange equilibrium based on Henry's law constants (HLCs), air concentrations and exchange dynamics. CUPs currently present the highest risk of increased exposures through melt pond loading and drainage due to the high ratio of melt pond water to seawater concentration (Melt pond Enrichment Factor, MEF), which ranges from 2 for dacthal to 10 for endosulfan I. Melt pond contaminant enrichment can be perceived as a hypothetical 'pump' delivering contaminants from the atmosphere to the ocean under ice-covered conditions, with 2-10% of CUPs annually entering the Beaufort Sea via this input route compared to the standing stock in the Polar Mixed Layer of the ocean. The abovementioned processes are strongly favored in first-year ice compared to multi-year ice and, therefore, the dynamic balance between contaminant inventories and contaminant deposition to the surface ocean is being widely affected by the large-scale icescape transition taking place in the Arctic.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Centre for Earth Observation Science, University of Manitoba, Wallace Building, 125 Dysart Road, Winnipeg R3T 2N2, Canada. Electronic address: Monika.Pucko@umanitoba.ca.Centre for Earth Observation Science, University of Manitoba, Wallace Building, 125 Dysart Road, Winnipeg R3T 2N2, Canada.Centre for Earth Observation Science, University of Manitoba, Wallace Building, 125 Dysart Road, Winnipeg R3T 2N2, Canada; Institute of Ocean Sciences, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, 9860 West Saanich Road, Sidney, British Columbia V8L 4B2, Canada.Air Quality Processes Research Section, Environment Canada, 6248 Eighth Line, Egbert, Ontario L0L 1N0, Canada.Chemistry Department, Umeå University, Umeå SE-901 87, Sweden.Air Quality Processes Research Section, Environment Canada, 6248 Eighth Line, Egbert, Ontario L0L 1N0, Canada; Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University, Stockholm SE-106 91, Sweden.Centre for Earth Observation Science, University of Manitoba, Wallace Building, 125 Dysart Road, Winnipeg R3T 2N2, Canada.Centre for Earth Observation Science, University of Manitoba, Wallace Building, 125 Dysart Road, Winnipeg R3T 2N2, Canada; Department of Geological Sciences, University of Manitoba, Wallace Building, 125 Dysart Road, Winnipeg R3T 2N2, Canada; Greenland Climate Research Centre, Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, 3900 Nuuk, Greenland; Arctic Research Centre, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25437762

Citation

Pućko, Monika, et al. "The Delivery of Organic Contaminants to the Arctic Food Web: Why Sea Ice Matters." The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 506-507, 2015, pp. 444-52.
Pućko M, Stern GA, Macdonald RW, et al. The delivery of organic contaminants to the Arctic food web: why sea ice matters. Sci Total Environ. 2015;506-507:444-52.
Pućko, M., Stern, G. A., Macdonald, R. W., Jantunen, L. M., Bidleman, T. F., Wong, F., Barber, D. G., & Rysgaard, S. (2015). The delivery of organic contaminants to the Arctic food web: why sea ice matters. The Science of the Total Environment, 506-507, 444-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.11.040
Pućko M, et al. The Delivery of Organic Contaminants to the Arctic Food Web: Why Sea Ice Matters. Sci Total Environ. 2015 Feb 15;506-507:444-52. PubMed PMID: 25437762.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The delivery of organic contaminants to the Arctic food web: why sea ice matters. AU - Pućko,Monika, AU - Stern,Gary A, AU - Macdonald,Robie W, AU - Jantunen,Liisa M, AU - Bidleman,Terry F, AU - Wong,Fiona, AU - Barber,David G, AU - Rysgaard,Søren, Y1 - 2014/11/26/ PY - 2014/08/25/received PY - 2014/11/10/revised PY - 2014/11/11/accepted PY - 2014/12/2/entrez PY - 2014/12/2/pubmed PY - 2015/2/24/medline KW - Arctic KW - Beaufort Sea KW - Current use pesticides KW - Melt ponds KW - Organic contaminants KW - Organochlorine pesticides SP - 444 EP - 52 JF - The Science of the total environment JO - Sci Total Environ VL - 506-507 N2 - For decades sea ice has been perceived as a physical barrier for the loading of contaminants to the Arctic Ocean. We show that sea ice, in fact, facilitates the delivery of organic contaminants to the Arctic marine food web through processes that: 1) are independent of contaminant physical-chemical properties (e.g. 2-3-fold increase in exposure to brine-associated biota), and 2) depend on physical-chemical properties and, therefore, differentiate between contaminants (e.g. atmospheric loading of contaminants to melt ponds over the summer, and their subsequent leakage to the ocean). We estimate the concentrations of legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and current-use pesticides (CUPs) in melt pond water in the Beaufort Sea, Canadian High Arctic, in 2008, at near-gas exchange equilibrium based on Henry's law constants (HLCs), air concentrations and exchange dynamics. CUPs currently present the highest risk of increased exposures through melt pond loading and drainage due to the high ratio of melt pond water to seawater concentration (Melt pond Enrichment Factor, MEF), which ranges from 2 for dacthal to 10 for endosulfan I. Melt pond contaminant enrichment can be perceived as a hypothetical 'pump' delivering contaminants from the atmosphere to the ocean under ice-covered conditions, with 2-10% of CUPs annually entering the Beaufort Sea via this input route compared to the standing stock in the Polar Mixed Layer of the ocean. The abovementioned processes are strongly favored in first-year ice compared to multi-year ice and, therefore, the dynamic balance between contaminant inventories and contaminant deposition to the surface ocean is being widely affected by the large-scale icescape transition taking place in the Arctic. SN - 1879-1026 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25437762/The_delivery_of_organic_contaminants_to_the_Arctic_food_web:_why_sea_ice_matters_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -