Endoscopic hemostasis in acute esophageal variceal bleeding.Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2014 Dec; 43(4):795-806.GC
Acute variceal bleeding (AVB) is a milestone event for patients with portal hypertension. Esophageal varices bleed because of an increase in portal pressure that causes the variceal wall to rupture. AVB in a patient with cirrhosis and portal hypertension is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The initial management of these patients includes proper resuscitation, antibiotic prophylaxis, pharmacologic therapy with vasoconstrictors, and endoscopic therapy. Intravascular fluid management, timing of endoscopy, and endoscopic technique are key in managing these patients. This article reviews the current endoscopic hemostatic strategies for patients with AVB.