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Influenza vaccine effectiveness against laboratory confirmed influenza in Greece during the 2013-2014 season: a test-negative study.
Vaccine. 2015 Jan 03; 33(2):367-73.V

Abstract

BACKGROUND

In 2013-2014 Greece experienced a resurgence of severe influenza cases, coincidental with a shift to H1N1pdm09 predominance. We sought to estimate Vaccine Effectiveness (VE) for this season using available surveillance data from hospitals (including both inpatients and outpatients).

METHODS

Swab samples were sent by hospital physicians to one of three laboratories, covering the entire country, to be tested for influenza using RT-PCR. The test-negative design was employed, with patients testing positive serving as cases and those testing negative serving as controls. VE was estimated using logistic regression, adjusted for age group, sex, region and calendar time, with further adjustment for unknown vaccination status using inverse response propensity weights. Additional age group stratified estimates and subgroup estimates of VE against H1N1pdm09 and H3N2 were calculated.

RESULTS

Out of 1310 patients with known vaccination status, 124 (9.5%) were vaccinated, and 543 patients (41.5%) tested positive for influenza. Adjusted VE was 34.5% (95% CI: 4.1-55.3%) against any influenza, and 56.7% (95% CI: 22.8-75.7%) against H1N1pdm09. VE estimates appeared to be higher for people aged 60 and older, while in those under 60 there was limited evidence of effectiveness. Isolated circulating strains were genetically close to the vaccine strain, with limited evidence of antigenic drift.

CONCLUSIONS

These results suggest a moderate protective effect of the 2013-2014 influenza vaccine, mainly against H1N1pdm09 and in people aged 60 and over. Vaccine coverage was very low in Greece, even among groups targeted for vaccination, and substantial efforts should be made to improve it. VE can and should be routinely monitored, and the results taken into account when deciding on influenza vaccine composition for next season.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Epidemiological Surveillance and Intervention, Hellenic Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Athens, Greece; Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona, Spain; Department of Experimental and Health Sciences, Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address: thlytras@gmail.com.National Influenza Reference Laboratory for Southern Greece, Hellenic Pasteur Institute, Athens, Greece.National Influenza Reference Laboratory for Northern Greece, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.National Influenza Reference Laboratory for Northern Greece, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.National Influenza Reference Laboratory for Northern Greece, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.National Influenza Reference Laboratory for Northern Greece, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.National Influenza Reference Laboratory for Northern Greece, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.National Influenza Reference Laboratory for Southern Greece, Hellenic Pasteur Institute, Athens, Greece.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25448097

Citation

Lytras, Theodore, et al. "Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Against Laboratory Confirmed Influenza in Greece During the 2013-2014 Season: a Test-negative Study." Vaccine, vol. 33, no. 2, 2015, pp. 367-73.
Lytras T, Kossyvakis A, Melidou A, et al. Influenza vaccine effectiveness against laboratory confirmed influenza in Greece during the 2013-2014 season: a test-negative study. Vaccine. 2015;33(2):367-73.
Lytras, T., Kossyvakis, A., Melidou, A., Exindari, M., Gioula, G., Pogka, V., Malisiovas, N., & Mentis, A. (2015). Influenza vaccine effectiveness against laboratory confirmed influenza in Greece during the 2013-2014 season: a test-negative study. Vaccine, 33(2), 367-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.11.005
Lytras T, et al. Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Against Laboratory Confirmed Influenza in Greece During the 2013-2014 Season: a Test-negative Study. Vaccine. 2015 Jan 3;33(2):367-73. PubMed PMID: 25448097.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Influenza vaccine effectiveness against laboratory confirmed influenza in Greece during the 2013-2014 season: a test-negative study. AU - Lytras,Theodore, AU - Kossyvakis,Athanasios, AU - Melidou,Angeliki, AU - Exindari,Maria, AU - Gioula,Georgia, AU - Pogka,Vasiliki, AU - Malisiovas,Nikolaos, AU - Mentis,Andreas, Y1 - 2014/11/18/ PY - 2014/07/22/received PY - 2014/10/24/revised PY - 2014/11/06/accepted PY - 2014/12/3/entrez PY - 2014/12/3/pubmed PY - 2016/1/24/medline KW - Epidemiology KW - Influenza KW - Influenza-like illness—ILI KW - Molecular methods KW - Surveillance KW - Vaccine effectiveness SP - 367 EP - 73 JF - Vaccine JO - Vaccine VL - 33 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: In 2013-2014 Greece experienced a resurgence of severe influenza cases, coincidental with a shift to H1N1pdm09 predominance. We sought to estimate Vaccine Effectiveness (VE) for this season using available surveillance data from hospitals (including both inpatients and outpatients). METHODS: Swab samples were sent by hospital physicians to one of three laboratories, covering the entire country, to be tested for influenza using RT-PCR. The test-negative design was employed, with patients testing positive serving as cases and those testing negative serving as controls. VE was estimated using logistic regression, adjusted for age group, sex, region and calendar time, with further adjustment for unknown vaccination status using inverse response propensity weights. Additional age group stratified estimates and subgroup estimates of VE against H1N1pdm09 and H3N2 were calculated. RESULTS: Out of 1310 patients with known vaccination status, 124 (9.5%) were vaccinated, and 543 patients (41.5%) tested positive for influenza. Adjusted VE was 34.5% (95% CI: 4.1-55.3%) against any influenza, and 56.7% (95% CI: 22.8-75.7%) against H1N1pdm09. VE estimates appeared to be higher for people aged 60 and older, while in those under 60 there was limited evidence of effectiveness. Isolated circulating strains were genetically close to the vaccine strain, with limited evidence of antigenic drift. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a moderate protective effect of the 2013-2014 influenza vaccine, mainly against H1N1pdm09 and in people aged 60 and over. Vaccine coverage was very low in Greece, even among groups targeted for vaccination, and substantial efforts should be made to improve it. VE can and should be routinely monitored, and the results taken into account when deciding on influenza vaccine composition for next season. SN - 1873-2518 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25448097/Influenza_vaccine_effectiveness_against_laboratory_confirmed_influenza_in_Greece_during_the_2013_2014_season:_a_test_negative_study_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0264-410X(14)01529-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -