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Sulfate radical-based water treatment in presence of chloride: formation of chlorate, inter-conversion of sulfate radicals into hydroxyl radicals and influence of bicarbonate.
Water Res. 2015 Apr 01; 72:349-60.WR

Abstract

Sulfate radical (SO4(-)) based oxidation is discussed as a potential water treatment option and is already used in ground water remediation. However, the complex SO4(-) chemistry in various matrices is poorly understood. In that regard, the fast reaction of SO4(-) with Cl(-) is of high importance since Cl(-) belongs to the main constituents in aqueous environments. This reaction yields chlorine atoms (Cl) as primary products. Cl initiate a cascade of subsequent reactions with a pH dependent product pattern. At low pH (<5) formation of chlorine derived oxidation products such as chlorate (ClO3(-)) is favoured. This is undesired because ClO3(-) may reveal adverse effects on the environment and human health. At pH > 5 Cl mainly react with water yielding hydroxyl radicals. Thus, at moderate Cl(-) concentrations (mM range) the SO4(-)-based process may be converted into a conventional (hydroxyl radical -based) advanced oxidation process. The conversion of SO4(-) into OH, however, is interrupted in presence of bicarbonate by scavenging of Cl.

Authors+Show Affiliations

University Duisburg-Essen, Instrumental Analytical Chemistry, Universitätsstr. 5, D-45141 Essen, Germany; IWW Water Centre, Moritzstr. 26, D-45476 Mülheim an der Ruhr, Germany. Electronic address: holger.lutze@uni-due.de.University Duisburg-Essen, Instrumental Analytical Chemistry, Universitätsstr. 5, D-45141 Essen, Germany. Electronic address: n.kerlin@Krohne.com.University Duisburg-Essen, Instrumental Analytical Chemistry, Universitätsstr. 5, D-45141 Essen, Germany; IWW Water Centre, Moritzstr. 26, D-45476 Mülheim an der Ruhr, Germany; University Duisburg-Essen, Centre for Water and Environmental Research (ZWU), Universitätsstr. 5, D-45141 Essen, Germany. Electronic address: torsten.schmidt@uni-due.de.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25455043

Citation

Lutze, Holger V., et al. "Sulfate Radical-based Water Treatment in Presence of Chloride: Formation of Chlorate, Inter-conversion of Sulfate Radicals Into Hydroxyl Radicals and Influence of Bicarbonate." Water Research, vol. 72, 2015, pp. 349-60.
Lutze HV, Kerlin N, Schmidt TC. Sulfate radical-based water treatment in presence of chloride: formation of chlorate, inter-conversion of sulfate radicals into hydroxyl radicals and influence of bicarbonate. Water Res. 2015;72:349-60.
Lutze, H. V., Kerlin, N., & Schmidt, T. C. (2015). Sulfate radical-based water treatment in presence of chloride: formation of chlorate, inter-conversion of sulfate radicals into hydroxyl radicals and influence of bicarbonate. Water Research, 72, 349-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2014.10.006
Lutze HV, Kerlin N, Schmidt TC. Sulfate Radical-based Water Treatment in Presence of Chloride: Formation of Chlorate, Inter-conversion of Sulfate Radicals Into Hydroxyl Radicals and Influence of Bicarbonate. Water Res. 2015 Apr 1;72:349-60. PubMed PMID: 25455043.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Sulfate radical-based water treatment in presence of chloride: formation of chlorate, inter-conversion of sulfate radicals into hydroxyl radicals and influence of bicarbonate. AU - Lutze,Holger V, AU - Kerlin,Nils, AU - Schmidt,Torsten C, Y1 - 2014/10/15/ PY - 2014/05/21/received PY - 2014/09/29/revised PY - 2014/10/06/accepted PY - 2014/12/3/entrez PY - 2014/12/3/pubmed PY - 2016/1/13/medline KW - Advanced oxidation KW - Chlorate KW - Chloride KW - Hydroxyl radical KW - Ozone KW - Sulfate radical KW - UV/persulfate SP - 349 EP - 60 JF - Water research JO - Water Res VL - 72 N2 - Sulfate radical (SO4(-)) based oxidation is discussed as a potential water treatment option and is already used in ground water remediation. However, the complex SO4(-) chemistry in various matrices is poorly understood. In that regard, the fast reaction of SO4(-) with Cl(-) is of high importance since Cl(-) belongs to the main constituents in aqueous environments. This reaction yields chlorine atoms (Cl) as primary products. Cl initiate a cascade of subsequent reactions with a pH dependent product pattern. At low pH (<5) formation of chlorine derived oxidation products such as chlorate (ClO3(-)) is favoured. This is undesired because ClO3(-) may reveal adverse effects on the environment and human health. At pH > 5 Cl mainly react with water yielding hydroxyl radicals. Thus, at moderate Cl(-) concentrations (mM range) the SO4(-)-based process may be converted into a conventional (hydroxyl radical -based) advanced oxidation process. The conversion of SO4(-) into OH, however, is interrupted in presence of bicarbonate by scavenging of Cl. SN - 1879-2448 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25455043/Sulfate_radical_based_water_treatment_in_presence_of_chloride:_formation_of_chlorate_inter_conversion_of_sulfate_radicals_into_hydroxyl_radicals_and_influence_of_bicarbonate_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0043-1354(14)00701-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -