Potent functional uncoupling between STIM1 and Orai1 by dimeric 2-aminodiphenyl borinate analogs.Cell Calcium. 2014 Dec; 56(6):482-92.CC
The coupling of ER Ca(2+)-sensing STIM proteins and PM Orai Ca(2+) entry channels generates "store-operated" Ca(2+) signals crucial in controlling responses in many cell types. The dimeric derivative of 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borinate (2-APB), DPB162-AE, blocks functional coupling between STIM1 and Orai1 with an IC50 (200 nM) 100-fold lower than 2-APB. Unlike 2-APB, DPB162-AE does not affect L-type or TRPC channels or Ca(2+) pumps at maximal STIM1-Orai1 blocking levels. DPB162-AE blocks STIM1-induced Orai1 or Orai2, but does not block Orai3 or STIM2-mediated effects. We narrowed the DPB162-AE site of action to the STIM-Orai activating region (SOAR) of STIM1. DPB162-AE does not prevent the SOAR-Orai1 interaction but potently blocks SOAR-mediated Orai1 channel activation, yet its action is not as an Orai1 channel pore blocker. Using the SOAR-F394H mutant which prevents both physical and functional coupling to Orai1, we reveal DPB162-AE rapidly restores SOAR-Orai binding but only slowly restores Orai1 channel-mediated Ca(2+) entry. With the same SOAR mutant, 2-APB induces rapid physical and functional coupling to Orai1, but channel activation is transient. We infer that the actions of both 2-APB and DPB162-AE are directed toward the STIM1-Orai1 coupling interface. Compared to 2-APB, DPB162-AE is a much more potent and specific STIM1/Orai1 functional uncoupler. DPB162-AE provides an important pharmacological tool and a useful mechanistic probe for the function and coupling between STIM1 and Orai1 channels.