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Application of stable isotopes (δ³⁴S-SO₄, δ¹⁸O-SO₄, δ¹⁵N-NO ₃, δ¹⁸O-NO ₃) to determine natural background and contamination sources in the Guadalhorce River Basin (southern Spain).
Sci Total Environ. 2015 Feb 15; 506-507:46-57.ST

Abstract

The integrated use of isotopes (δ(34)S-SO4, δ(18)O-SO4, δ(15)N-NO3, δ(18)O-NO3), taking into account existing hydrogeological knowledge of the study area (mainly hydrochemical), was applied in the Guadalhorce River Basin (southern Spain) to characterise SO4(2-) and NO3(-) sources, and to quantify natural background levels (NBLs) in groundwater bodies. According to Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC and, more recently, Groundwater Directive 2006/118/EC, it is important to determine NBLs, as their correct assessment is the first, essential step to characterising groundwater bodies, establishing threshold values, assessing chemical status and identifying trends in pollutant concentrations. In many cases, NBLs are high for some parameters and types of groundwater, making it difficult to distinguish clearly between factors of natural or human origin. The main advantages of using stable isotopes in a complex area like the Guadalhorce River Basin that exhibits widely varying hydrogeological and hydrochemical conditions and longstanding anthropogenic influences (mainly agriculture, but also many others) is accurate determination of pollution sources and precise quantification of NBLs. Since chemical analyses only provides the concentration of pollutants in water and not the source, three isotopic sampling campaigns for sulphates (δ(34)S-SO4, δ(18)O-SO4) were carried out, in 2006, 2007 and 2012, and another one was conducted for nitrates (δ(15)N-NO3, δ(18)O-NO3), in 2009, in groundwater bodies in order to trace the origins of each pollutant. The present study identified different pollution sources of dissolved NO3(-) in groundwater using an isotopic composition and quantified the percentage of natural (lithology, chemical and biological processes) and anthropogenic (fertilisers, manure and sewage) SO4(2-) and matched a concentration associated with the percentage in order to determine the NBLs in the basin.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Universidad de Málaga, Facultad de Ciencias, Grupo de Geodinámica Externa, Campus de Teatinos s/n, 29071 Málaga, Spain. Electronic address: b.urresti@uma.es.Universidad de Málaga, Facultad de Ciencias, Grupo de Geodinámica Externa, Campus de Teatinos s/n, 29071 Málaga, Spain.Universidad de Málaga, Facultad de Ciencias, Grupo de Geodinámica Externa, Campus de Teatinos s/n, 29071 Málaga, Spain.Grup de Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Fac. Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.Universidad de Málaga, Facultad de Ciencias, Grupo de Geodinámica Externa, Campus de Teatinos s/n, 29071 Málaga, Spain.Universidad de Málaga, Facultad de Ciencias, Grupo de Geodinámica Externa, Campus de Teatinos s/n, 29071 Málaga, Spain.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25460938

Citation

Urresti-Estala, Begoña, et al. "Application of Stable Isotopes (δ³⁴S-SO₄, δ¹⁸O-SO₄, δ¹⁵N-NO ₃, δ¹⁸O-NO ₃) to Determine Natural Background and Contamination Sources in the Guadalhorce River Basin (southern Spain)." The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 506-507, 2015, pp. 46-57.
Urresti-Estala B, Vadillo-Pérez I, Jiménez-Gavilán P, et al. Application of stable isotopes (δ³⁴S-SO₄, δ¹⁸O-SO₄, δ¹⁵N-NO ₃, δ¹⁸O-NO ₃) to determine natural background and contamination sources in the Guadalhorce River Basin (southern Spain). Sci Total Environ. 2015;506-507:46-57.
Urresti-Estala, B., Vadillo-Pérez, I., Jiménez-Gavilán, P., Soler, A., Sánchez-García, D., & Carrasco-Cantos, F. (2015). Application of stable isotopes (δ³⁴S-SO₄, δ¹⁸O-SO₄, δ¹⁵N-NO ₃, δ¹⁸O-NO ₃) to determine natural background and contamination sources in the Guadalhorce River Basin (southern Spain). The Science of the Total Environment, 506-507, 46-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.10.090
Urresti-Estala B, et al. Application of Stable Isotopes (δ³⁴S-SO₄, δ¹⁸O-SO₄, δ¹⁵N-NO ₃, δ¹⁸O-NO ₃) to Determine Natural Background and Contamination Sources in the Guadalhorce River Basin (southern Spain). Sci Total Environ. 2015 Feb 15;506-507:46-57. PubMed PMID: 25460938.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Application of stable isotopes (δ³⁴S-SO₄, δ¹⁸O-SO₄, δ¹⁵N-NO ₃, δ¹⁸O-NO ₃) to determine natural background and contamination sources in the Guadalhorce River Basin (southern Spain). AU - Urresti-Estala,Begoña, AU - Vadillo-Pérez,Iñaki, AU - Jiménez-Gavilán,Pablo, AU - Soler,Albert, AU - Sánchez-García,Damián, AU - Carrasco-Cantos,Francisco, Y1 - 2014/11/15/ PY - 2014/06/11/received PY - 2014/10/24/revised PY - 2014/10/26/accepted PY - 2014/12/3/entrez PY - 2014/12/3/pubmed PY - 2015/2/24/medline KW - European Groundwater Directive KW - Nitrates KW - Sulphates SP - 46 EP - 57 JF - The Science of the total environment JO - Sci Total Environ VL - 506-507 N2 - The integrated use of isotopes (δ(34)S-SO4, δ(18)O-SO4, δ(15)N-NO3, δ(18)O-NO3), taking into account existing hydrogeological knowledge of the study area (mainly hydrochemical), was applied in the Guadalhorce River Basin (southern Spain) to characterise SO4(2-) and NO3(-) sources, and to quantify natural background levels (NBLs) in groundwater bodies. According to Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC and, more recently, Groundwater Directive 2006/118/EC, it is important to determine NBLs, as their correct assessment is the first, essential step to characterising groundwater bodies, establishing threshold values, assessing chemical status and identifying trends in pollutant concentrations. In many cases, NBLs are high for some parameters and types of groundwater, making it difficult to distinguish clearly between factors of natural or human origin. The main advantages of using stable isotopes in a complex area like the Guadalhorce River Basin that exhibits widely varying hydrogeological and hydrochemical conditions and longstanding anthropogenic influences (mainly agriculture, but also many others) is accurate determination of pollution sources and precise quantification of NBLs. Since chemical analyses only provides the concentration of pollutants in water and not the source, three isotopic sampling campaigns for sulphates (δ(34)S-SO4, δ(18)O-SO4) were carried out, in 2006, 2007 and 2012, and another one was conducted for nitrates (δ(15)N-NO3, δ(18)O-NO3), in 2009, in groundwater bodies in order to trace the origins of each pollutant. The present study identified different pollution sources of dissolved NO3(-) in groundwater using an isotopic composition and quantified the percentage of natural (lithology, chemical and biological processes) and anthropogenic (fertilisers, manure and sewage) SO4(2-) and matched a concentration associated with the percentage in order to determine the NBLs in the basin. SN - 1879-1026 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25460938/Application_of_stable_isotopes__δ³⁴S_SO₄_δ¹⁸O_SO₄_δ¹⁵N_NO_₃_δ¹⁸O_NO_₃__to_determine_natural_background_and_contamination_sources_in_the_Guadalhorce_River_Basin__southern_Spain__ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0048-9697(14)01551-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -