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Lifestyle factors, demographics and medications associated with depression risk in an international sample of people with multiple sclerosis.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Depression is the most common co-morbidity for people with Multiple Sclerosis (MS); irrespective of disease severity, depression has the greatest impact on quality of life. An emerging paradigm in the treatment of depression is lifestyle medicine. There is significant potential to prevent and treat depression through modification of lifestyle risk factors for people with MS. This study sought to understand the association between lifestyle risk factors, medication and depression risk through the analysis of self-reported data from a large international sample of people with MS.

METHODS

This cross-sectional analysis recruited a total of 2459 participants via Web 2.0 platforms. Survey data included socio-demographics; a range of lifestyle risk factors; medication; disease variables and depression risk using the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2).

RESULTS

In total approximately one fifth (19.3%) of our sample screened positive for depression (PHQ-2 score ≥3). Several demographic factors were significantly associated with this depression risk in bivariate analysis. Regression analyses showed that poor diet, low levels of exercise, obesity, smoking, marked social isolation and taking interferon were associated with greater depression risk. Participants who supplemented with omega 3s, particularly flaxseed oil, had frequent fish consumption, supplemented with vitamin D, meditated, and had moderate alcohol consumption had significantly reduced depression risk.

CONCLUSIONS

This study demonstrates a significant association between modifiable lifestyle factors and depression risk. Planned longitudinal follow up may clarify causality. Clinicians and people with MS should be aware of the wide range of modifiable lifestyle factors that may reduce depression risk as part of a comprehensive secondary and tertiary preventive medical approach to managing MS.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Psychiatry, St Vincent's Hospital Melbourne, Victoria, VIC, 3065, Australia. keryn.taylor@svha.org.au. Department of Medicine, The University of Melbourne St Vincent's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. keryn.taylor@svha.org.au.

    ,

    Emergency Practice Innovation Centre, St Vincent's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. emily.hadgkiss@hotmail.com.

    ,

    Emergency Practice Innovation Centre, St Vincent's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. george.jelinek@svha.org.au. Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. george.jelinek@svha.org.au.

    ,

    Department of Medicine, The University of Melbourne St Vincent's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. tracey.weiland@svha.org.au. Emergency Practice Innovation Centre, St Vincent's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. tracey.weiland@svha.org.au.

    ,

    Faculty of Medicine, Notre Dame University, Fremantle, Western Australia, Australia. naresh.pereira@gmail.com.

    ,

    Emergency Practice Innovation Centre, St Vincent's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. claudia.marck@svha.org.au.

    Emergency Practice Innovation Centre, St Vincent's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. dania.vandermeer@svha.org.au.

    Source

    BMC psychiatry 14: 2014 Dec 03 pg 327

    MeSH

    Adult
    Cross-Sectional Studies
    Depressive Disorder
    Dietary Supplements
    Disabled Persons
    Educational Status
    Employment
    Exercise
    Fatty Acids, Omega-3
    Female
    Humans
    Life Style
    Male
    Marital Status
    Middle Aged
    Multiple Sclerosis
    Obesity
    Quality of Life
    Risk Factors
    Smoking
    Social Support
    Surveys and Questionnaires
    Vitamin D
    Vitamins

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    25467385

    Citation

    Taylor, Keryn L., et al. "Lifestyle Factors, Demographics and Medications Associated With Depression Risk in an International Sample of People With Multiple Sclerosis." BMC Psychiatry, vol. 14, 2014, p. 327.
    Taylor KL, Hadgkiss EJ, Jelinek GA, et al. Lifestyle factors, demographics and medications associated with depression risk in an international sample of people with multiple sclerosis. BMC Psychiatry. 2014;14:327.
    Taylor, K. L., Hadgkiss, E. J., Jelinek, G. A., Weiland, T. J., Pereira, N. G., Marck, C. H., & van der Meer, D. M. (2014). Lifestyle factors, demographics and medications associated with depression risk in an international sample of people with multiple sclerosis. BMC Psychiatry, 14, p. 327. doi:10.1186/s12888-014-0327-3.
    Taylor KL, et al. Lifestyle Factors, Demographics and Medications Associated With Depression Risk in an International Sample of People With Multiple Sclerosis. BMC Psychiatry. 2014 Dec 3;14:327. PubMed PMID: 25467385.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Lifestyle factors, demographics and medications associated with depression risk in an international sample of people with multiple sclerosis. AU - Taylor,Keryn L, AU - Hadgkiss,Emily J, AU - Jelinek,George A, AU - Weiland,Tracey J, AU - Pereira,Naresh G, AU - Marck,Claudia H, AU - van der Meer,Dania M, Y1 - 2014/12/03/ PY - 2014/07/31/received PY - 2014/11/10/accepted PY - 2014/12/4/entrez PY - 2014/12/4/pubmed PY - 2015/10/7/medline SP - 327 EP - 327 JF - BMC psychiatry JO - BMC Psychiatry VL - 14 N2 - BACKGROUND: Depression is the most common co-morbidity for people with Multiple Sclerosis (MS); irrespective of disease severity, depression has the greatest impact on quality of life. An emerging paradigm in the treatment of depression is lifestyle medicine. There is significant potential to prevent and treat depression through modification of lifestyle risk factors for people with MS. This study sought to understand the association between lifestyle risk factors, medication and depression risk through the analysis of self-reported data from a large international sample of people with MS. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis recruited a total of 2459 participants via Web 2.0 platforms. Survey data included socio-demographics; a range of lifestyle risk factors; medication; disease variables and depression risk using the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2). RESULTS: In total approximately one fifth (19.3%) of our sample screened positive for depression (PHQ-2 score ≥3). Several demographic factors were significantly associated with this depression risk in bivariate analysis. Regression analyses showed that poor diet, low levels of exercise, obesity, smoking, marked social isolation and taking interferon were associated with greater depression risk. Participants who supplemented with omega 3s, particularly flaxseed oil, had frequent fish consumption, supplemented with vitamin D, meditated, and had moderate alcohol consumption had significantly reduced depression risk. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a significant association between modifiable lifestyle factors and depression risk. Planned longitudinal follow up may clarify causality. Clinicians and people with MS should be aware of the wide range of modifiable lifestyle factors that may reduce depression risk as part of a comprehensive secondary and tertiary preventive medical approach to managing MS. SN - 1471-244X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25467385/Lifestyle_factors_demographics_and_medications_associated_with_depression_risk_in_an_international_sample_of_people_with_multiple_sclerosis_ L2 - https://bmcpsychiatry.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12888-014-0327-3 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -